was born on May 3, 1941, in Zugdide, in Georgia.
She became the Women's World Champion in
1962, when she won the title from Elizaveta Bykova
by a score of 9-2 (+7 -0 =4). Gaprindashvili went on
to dominate the women's international chess scene,
and remained Women's World Champion for 16 years! She
finally lost the title to another Georgian,
Chiburdanidze, in 1978, losing by the
score 8-1/2 to 6-1/2 (+2 -4 =9).
During her career Gaprindashvili successfully
competed in men's tournaments, winning (amongst
others) the Hastings Challengers tournament in 1963/4
and tying for first place at Lone Pine in 1977. In
1978 she became the first woman to
be made an (unqualified) International
Grandmaster having been a Women's
Grandmaster since 1962.
Gaprindashvili is one of only a few women who
could compete realistically in top level tournaments
dominated by male grandmasters.