national Herrow, who was swiming against the tide
remains of First President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
have been transported to Georgia. The Family Members and
Governmental Officials met the remains of Zviad
Gamsakhurdia at the Upper Larsi Checkpoint.
The civil funerals were held in both the Kolkh Tower and Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, Mtskheta.
On Sunday April 1 the remains of Zviad Gamsakhurdia was interred at the Mtatsminda Pantheon, Tbilisi.
Dr. Zviad K.
Gamsakhurdia was one of the leaders of the
National-Liberation and Human Rights movements in Georgia
(1960s - 1990), the first democratically elected
President of the Republic of Georgia, outstanding
scientist (Philologist, historian, philosopher,
theologian), writer and translator. Main fields of
scientific activity of Dr. Gamsakhurdia were: history of
Georgian literature, history of the Ibero-Caucasian
Civilization, history of Georgian culture, history of
American poetry, Rustvelology, Anthroposophy, history of
the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, etc. He was
author of about 40 important scientific works (4
monographs) and more than 200 publicistic papers.
X X X
Z. Gamsakhurdia was
born in Tbilisi on the March 31, 1939. Father - Dr.
Konstantine S. Gamsakhurdia (1893-1975), the Classic
of Georgian Literature of the XX century. Mother - Miranda Palavandishvili.
In 1955 Zviad
Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava in the age of 15-16 years
old, initiated and established an underground youth
patriotic organization "Gorgasliani".
1958-1962 - Student of
the Faculty of Western Languages and Literature of the
Tbilisi State University.
1963-1977 - Research
Worker of the Shota Rustaveli Institute of the Georgian
Literature of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and
Lecturer of the Tbilisi State University. From 1973 -
Dr.Ph., from 1991 - Doctor of Philological Sciences (full
1981-1990 - Senior
Research Worker of the Shota Rustaveli Institute of the
Georgian Literature and Associate Professor of the
Tbilisi State University.
1966-1977, 1981-1992 -
Member of the Union of Writers of Georgia.
In 1973 under
leadership of Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava in
Tbilisi was established the first public and legal Human
Rights organization in the Caucasus - "Human Rights
Initiative Group". In 1976, on the basis of this
group, under Zviad Gamsakhurdia's leadership was
established the Georgian Helsinki Group, which
represented the first group of this kind on the territory
of the former Soviet-Union. From its establishment the
Helsinki Group actively defended the issue of Human
Rights, especially the rights of political prisoners and
prisoners of consciousness in the former Soviet empire.
They also actively defended the Georgian language and the
absolutely undefended monuments of Georgian culture. The
Group was publishing and spreading illegal samizdat
underground journals "Okros Satskmisi"
("Golden Fleece") and "Sakartvelos
Moambe" ("Georgian Herald").
In 1974 Dr. Zviad
Gamsakhurdia and Mr. Merab Kostava were appointed
International Members of the Nobelprize-awarded
organization - "Amnesty International" (UK).
In 1977 Zviad
Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava were arrested. Until their
official charge in May 1977 they were kept in Moscow's
Lefortovo-prison and then in one of the main Soviet
repressive institutions, - the Special Department of the
Serbsky Institute of Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow (which
was subordanited to Soviet KGB). In May 1978 they were
charged. Till June 1979 Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia was in
deportation in Kizlyar-region in Dagestan (village
In 1978 the United
States Congress proposed Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia as a
Official Candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize.
In 1982-1983 Zviad
Gamsakhurdia was put under house arrest. In spite of that
in 1983 he managed to issue a samizdat journal
In 1986-1990 the
Georgian Helsinki Group (from September 1989 - Union) was
coordinator of all important protest actions of the Human
Rights and anti-imperialist movement. On the 9th of
April, 1989, after the brutal dispursal of the peacefull
action in Tbilisi, among other organizators Dr. Zviad
Gamsakhurdia and Mr. Merab Kostava were arrested. They
were kept during 40 days in the KGB-isolator.
In the late 1989 Zviad
Gamsakhurdia greatly contributed to working out the law
of the first multiparty democratic elections in the
former USSR, its adoption and its realization.
On the October 28,
1990, an absolute majority of Georgia's population
supported the political parties and organizations of the
electoral Bloc "Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali
Sakartvelo" ("Round Table - Free Georgia")
and its acknowledge leader Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia, and
at the first Session of the Supreme Council (the first
National Multiparty Parliament), in November, 1990 he was
unannimously elected as a Chairman of the Supreme Council
of the Republic of Georgia.
Referendum of Georgia about the restoration of the
Independence of country (March 31, 1991), on April 9,
1991, the Republic of Georgia was declare with the Act of
Restoration of Georgian State Independence as a
Independent country. Author of the Act was Dr. Zviad
International Law toward the legislation of the Republic
of Georgia and the direct actions of its norms on the
territory of Georgia are declared as the main
constitutional principles of the Republic of Georgia.
On April 14, 1991 the
Supreme Council elected Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia President
of Georgia, which was confirmed by the nationwide
elections held on May 26, 1991.
On December 22, 1991,
the military coup d'etat started in Tbilisi against the
legal authorities of the Republic of Georgia. Since it
became evident, that the putchists supplied by Russian
military wouldn't be easily defeated and in order to
avoid the further bloodshed the President, Supreme
Council and Government members left the Parliament House
on January 6, 1992. President Gamsakhurdia managed to
escape with his family and members of the legal
Government of Georgia first to Armenia and later to the
Chechen Republic Ichkeria. President of Georgia continued
the political struggle for independence of his country in
In September 3, 1992,
President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and President of the Chechen
Republic of Ichkeria, Gen. Jokhar Dudaev was organizers
of the 1st All-Caucasian Conference of the Movement
"Round Table - Wholecaucasian House" (Grozny).
Due to the strong
public resistance to dictator Shevardnadze's criminal
regime the first democratically elected President of
Georgia was able to return to his country in September
24, 1993. The legal Government and Supreme Council
renewed their activity in Zugdidi (western Georgia)
gaining tremendous public support. The Shevardnadze's
regime, doomed to failure was backed by Russia and United
Nations. In November, 1993, the Russian troops occupied
the Western Georgia. President Gamsakhurdia had to leave
Zugdidi, since when he was haunted by junta.
On December 31, 1993
Zviad Gamsakhurdia died in Dzveli Khibula-village, Khobi-region (Western
Georgia) under tragic circumstances. In February, 1994
Gamsakhurdia's body was reburied in Grozny (Jokhar Kala), the capital of the
Chechen Republic Ichkeria.
On March 28, 2007 the remains of Gamsakhurdia were arrived in Georgia for reburial and was interred at the Mtatsminda Pantheon on April 1, 2007.
Remains of First President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia Delivered to Georgia. Photo and Video.
The Spiritual Mission of Georgia
The Nomenklatura Revanche in Georgia
Gamsakhurdia, Open Letter to Eduard Shevardnadze