Iberiana - Georgia




“Tbilisi is Eden, fairyland city, built for delighting beloved people”–Charles Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755).

“I sighted almost everything in Tbilisi – Georgian heaven and I had not have worked so fruitfully during my lifetime, as in Tbilisi” – Alexander Duma (1803-1870).

“If not Tbilisi, there might be standing a mosque in stead of church in Vienna, as Jalal Ad-Dins, Genghis Khans and other Eastern Sultans and Shahs were crashed exactly on Tbilisi Citadel. Tbilisi stood, as European fortress from where enemies of the whole Christianity could only reach Europe weakened and emptied from blood.”– Karl Hugo Huppert (1902-1982).


Kakhaber Pipia

Kakhaber Pipia 

Doctor of History, Professor of  Sokhumi State University

  “Abkhazian Statehood”– Myth or Historical Reality?

From the beginning of 20thcentury  Ru­s­­sian imperialistic forces and Abkhazian separatistically di­s­p­o­s­ed circles started planned, purposeful ideological battle aga­inst Georgian-Abkhazian cultural-historical unity. The separ­at­e­­ist researchers as much as possible are trying to “prove” as if Abkhazia never had been the part of Georgia and it had been de­­veloping independently. They were claiming unilaterally as if in antique period there had been already existed “Abkhazian na­ti­­onal state” and these researchers are carrying out pro­pa­gan­da of the century-old, 2000-2500-year history of “Abkhazian sta­te­ho­od” which of course, is a total absurd. In this situation, study of separate issues in the history of Abkhazia becomes especially topical. Presenting important issues of the history of Abkhazia from objective historical perspective will help Georgian and Abkhazian people in cultural reintegration, that is the basis for political unity.

In recent period very important works have been developed on the studies of issues of Abkhazian history, although separate issues require special study. In current situation, from the point of science and state strategy, we find it highly significant study issue of status of Ap­­sils’ and Abazgs’ Unions. In the presented work, there is studied the issue of po­li­ti­­cal status of Apsils’ and Abazgs’ "kingdoms” on the base of an an­a­ly­sis of antique sources; It is shown that modern Abkhazian te­r­­ritory was an organic part of Georgian cultural-political wo­r­ld in antique period and the “theory” about the existence of  “Ab­khazian state” has no real proof...

See more: https://iberiana2.wordpress.com/abkhazia/k_pipia 


74-year old Georgian grand master Nona Gaprindashvili becomes a world champion once more

The legendary Georgian chess player Nona Gaprindashvili, 74, once again became a champion – this time she won in the Seniors World Championship. It happened in the Italian town of Acqui Terme, where the tournament was held in four

different age categories.
In Acqui Terme, where the championship among the women of 65 years of age or more was taking place, Gaprindashvili accumulated 7 points from 9 games, which is 0.5 points more than Tamar Khmiadashvili, another Georgian.
As a result, the first two places at this championship were taken by Georgians.
Nona Gaprindashvili is a five-time world champion. She is a winner of 20 Olympic gold medals. In 1978 she became the first woman in chess to become grand master and in 2001 her name was given to the Tbilisi Chess School.




sakdrisi_gold_mine Mari Nikuradze - Mining company wants to dig gold in 5400 year old mine

Jan 19, 2014

TBILISI, DFWatch- Activists in Georgia are trying to prevent a five thousand year old gold mine from being opened up for commercial exploitation.

It started in spring 2013, when archaeologists became aware that the mining company RMG was about to start excavating gold in an over five thousand year old gold mine where there have been found tens of thousands of human artifacts.

The site was only recently discovered, and had it not been for the archaeologists’ protest less than a year ago, it might never have been fully explored by experts, and prehistoric traces of humanity of immeasurable value might be lost.

Due to the archaeologists’ protests, RMG applied to the Culture Ministry on April 26, 2013, to lift the status the site had as cultural heritage, to allow for mining to continue.

RMG was at the time mining in a place called Kazreti, and the ancient gold mine in Sakdrisi was the next place it wanted to excavate.

Archeologists say Sakdrisi mine is more than 5400 years old and has great historical importance. Tens of thousands of stone weapons have been discovered there during archeology excavations and much may yet remain to be discovered. The prehistoric mine goes 50 meters into the ground and was discovered only a few years ago by Georgian and German archeologists...

See more: http://iberiana.wordpress.com/iberiana/sakdrisi/#9



The German parents protest against a compulsory sex gleam at schools


The other day before the prison building in the German city of Hamm I passed meeting of a protest of parents and children against obligatory reminding lessons of a rigid porno of lessons of "sexual education" in the German schools. Protesting expected an exit from prison of the father of the eight children who have received days of arrest for refusal to pay a penalty concerning a truancy by his daughter one lesson of a sex gleam. 




Holy Great-martyr Queen Ketevan Bagration-Mukhraneli

Queen of Kakheti  (†1624)

Born in Georgia, killed in Persia - publicly executed after she refused to convert to Islam


Georgians seek buried bones of martyred queen
By Luke Harding in New Delhi The Guardian
June 25, 2000

OLD GOA: Scientists have conducted a DNA analysis on bones believed to have been relics of Georgian queen Ketevan preserved in St Augustine's complex at Old Goa, but the mystery continues as a matching analysis of her other relics in Georgia needs to be done to confirm the findings.



Inga Routidzé - Les problèmes de l’identité linguistique et ethnique des Géorgiens d’après

                              «L’histoire du catholicisme parmi les Géorgiens» de M.Tamarachvili

L’étude des documents historiques  présentait toujours un intérêt particulier pour les chercheurs de chaque pays afin de mieux expliquer les malchances ou les succès du passé. A cause de nombreux malheurs historiques, une grande partie des sources géorgiennes est perdue ou bien elle n’est  pas encore étudiée. C’est pourquoi chaque source ou chaque document est très important.

Mikel Tamarachvili, une personne distinguée et remarquable, était un grand professer, savant, publiciste qui connaissait bien des langues étrangères : le français, l’italien, le latin, le turc, l’arménien et le géorgien. C’est lui qui a découvert et a étudié les matériaux décrivant le voyage en Europe du grand homme et de l’écrivain géorgien Sulkhan-Saba Orbéliani. Dans l’histoire de la Géorgie, M. Tamarachvili comme l’homme des sciences à la suite de grands efforts, d’immenses difficultés et de travail a su non seulement trouver et étudier des documents et des sources géorgiens éparpillés ou gardés dans les archives de Moscou, d’Alexandrie, de Londres, de la Turquie, de l’Italie, de la France, mais  il a réussi à donner la réponse convenable à ceux qui souhaitaient la décomposition de la conscience nationale. M. Tamarachvili à l’aide des documents découverts par lui, a présenté la Géorgie à l’Europe qui avait  l’image très vague de ce pays. «… Nous avons eu l’intention de ramasser les documents des siècles passés. Mais où devions-nous les chercher ? Bien sûr, pas en Géorgie, où à défaut de vieilles archives il n’y a pas même leur trace. Nous devions nous adresser aux archives de l’Italie et de différentes villes de l’Europe… Les documents concernant la Géorgie ci – présentés est une petite partie de documents qui sont déjà perdus et dont la découverte est déjà malheureusement impossible. Nous espérons aussi découvrir une petite partie de documents à la suite des efforts supplémentaires parce que nous n’avons pas encore visité toutes les bibliothèques et toutes les archives de l’Europe et dans quelques archives nous devons encore continuer nos recherches incomplètes»[1]. Il était impossible de trouver quelques lettres géorgiennes envoyées de la Géorgie et la plupart de ces lettres sont traduites du latin...



Georgian “Abu Ghraib” causes public outrage in Tbilisi

by DFWatch staff | Sep 19

People gathered spontaneously outside the concert hall where President Saakashvili was, to show their disgust at the images of humiliating physical abuse in Georgia's prisons. The prison minister has said she will resign. (IPN.)

People gathered spontaneously outside the concert hall where President Saakashvili was, to show their disgust at the images of humiliating physical abuse in Georgia's prisons. The prison minister has said she will resign. (IPN.)

TBILISI, DFWatch – Four different videos showing physical and sexual abuse of prisoners in Georgian prisons has triggered a widespread public outrage and a demand for the prison minister to step down.

The videos were released on Tuesday by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and two opposition leaning channels TV Maestro and TV 9.

Tuesday night, thousands of people gathered spontaneously at two spots in the capital to show their disgust at the images of humiliating sexual abuse in Georgian prisons. Early evening after the release of the videos, thousands of people rushed to the large prison at Gldani, where the abuse videos were filmed, some of whom had family members on the inside. Others gathered outside the philarmonic concert hall in the centre of Tbilisi, where President Mikheil Saakashvili was inside attending a concert...

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Ancient woman grave found in Georgia

Georgia, Tbilisi, July 27 /Trend/. The National Museum of Georgia hosted a presentation of things revealed through preventive archaeological work in the Ilmazlo village of Marneuli District (Kvemo Kartli, eastern Georgia).

The National Electricity System of Georgia is building a new transmission line with the capacity of 500 kilowatts, which will connect Georgia and Azerbaijan from July 2011. During the line designing work near the area of Tower 53 in Ilmazlo, an archaeological expedition of the Georgian National Museum take out a grave of a noble woman, which dates back to VII century BC, together with gold jewelry - rings and earrings, as well as pottery and animal remains.

The finding is particularly important because items of precious metal are very rare in this era (the early Iron Age). The detected objects differ for their quality and the earrings are unique.



‘Stones that Speak’

Nugzar B. Ruhadze - "Stones that Speak"

"Stones that Speak" is a recent addition to the world book market which is one of those that make a historical tour of language and cultural influences. It is a real treat for a reader with a specific interest in the world's Hellenistic heritage. Exclaims Morritt in his introduction - "What would that piece of clay say if it could speak!" According to the author, archeological excavations, archaic languages and Myths are explored, together with what appear to be archaic Cretan relations as far away as the Black Sea region.Our special interest goes to the enigma of the Phaistos Disc which is revisited in Moritt's outstanding edition in the light of new findings. And one of those new findings belongs to Dr. Gia Kvashilava.

Kvashilava has worked nearly 28 years on deciphering the world's first printed document the Phaistos Disc found on the Crete. His efforts in deciphering Linear and Cretan hieroglyphic scripts are widely presented in Robert Morritt's book "Stones that Speak". The author underlines that Gia Kvashilava has deciphered the Phaistos Disc into Colchian (Proto-Kartvelian language). The text is proved to be a hymn and prayer to Anatolian Mother Goddess Nenana and is printed in the Colchian Goldscript. He presented his paper to the International Conference in London, England November 1st of 2008 on the occasion of then 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Phaistos Disc.



"Iberiana" is a short film by Filipe Araujo freely adapted from Joao Lopes Marques' homonymous novel.


Iberiana is Joao Lopes Marques' latest novel and takes us to the origins of Iberian Peninsula.

Joao Lopes Marques: Sextante publishing house launches on April 14 "Iberiana", a novel by Joao Lopes Marques

Joao Lopes Marques: "Iberiana" is a journey from Basque Country to Georgia searching for the roots that originated the Iberian civilizations. Throughout a narrative full of irony, the religious and political intentions of our times are caricaturized, showing how ridiculous so many different faiths and hierarchies can be. The official presentation of this book will be in the event Literature and Travel, in Matosinhos, 16th April, around 16h45. Later there will be another presentation in Lisbon.


Zurab Kapianidze, Teimuraz Mibchuani - Mankind's First Alphabet. Sumerian-Georgian Asomtavruli-Majuscule

Mankind's first alphabet whose creators were Sumerians, has been discovered. Georgians call this alpabet Asomtavruli (Majuscule) and they even used to employ it in the past. It is a cosmic alphabet, where the sun and the moon are used as letter-signs. Each letter-sign (35 in all) reads like a philosophical book. They contain mysteries of the universe, among them the sun and moon calendar with a precision to seconds, unknown to science up to the present time. The Sumerian language, considered a dead language for about four milleniums, is still alive in the ancient dialects of the Georgian language-Svanian and Megrelian. The Svan people living in the mountainous part of Georgia have saved the religious cults of the Sumerian pantheon of deities. This great discovery unveils a great many mysteries of our life. It can also become an ideological instrument of instituting peace, cooperation and unity among the inhabitants of the earth, which is sure to undermine all political or religious confrontation...


Armenians mislead by replacing real history with myths - Georgian professor

News.Az interviews Georgian historian, professor of the Sukhumi State University Guram Markhuliya.

I would start my conversation with the direct question. Is the current Republic of Armenia the historical land of Armenians?

The present-day Armenia consists of the historical regions of Georgia and Azerbaijan. Scientists from different countries have not come to a single opinion about localization of the home of Armenians. The search continues.

What is the main goal of all historical falsifications of Armenians?

Earlier you asked what the Armenian state has to do with Cilicia which existed in the 14th century. The fact that you asked this question proves the successful and productive work of the Armenian propaganda, spreading the historical lie...




Leaving aside dramatic changes of Abkhazia's population during the periods of Ottoman and Russian expansion, as well as the complicated ethnic composition of the Apsua people that included Adygh, Georgian and other elements, we would like to offer you here an outline of Abkhazian ethnic history of the 20th century only.

According to the 1897 census, the ethnic makeup of the district of Sukhum and the district of Sochi (that included a part of modern Abkhazia and historically was often incorporated into it) looked as follows:


Alexander Kartvelishvili (Kartveli)

Kartveli was born in Tbilisi, Georgia, into noble family. He graduated from the grammar school in Tbilisi in 1914. Kartveli graduated in 1922 from the Highest School of Aviation in Paris. In 1922-1927, he worked for a while at the Louis Bleriot Company and designed the "Bernard" and "Ferbois" aircraft . In 1924, one of his aircraft established a world speed record. In 1927, American millionaire Charles Levine invited Kartveli to New York. In 1928 he joined the Fokker American Company. In 1931 Kartveli met well-known engineer Alexander de Seversky, who was also from Georgia, and became Chief Engineer at the Seversky Aircraft Corporation. In 1939 this Company changed its name to the "Republic Aviation Company". Kartveli and Seversky created a series of aircraft and during World War II they designed one of its greatest planes, the Republic P-47. After World War II, Kartveli designed well-known aircraft such as the Republic F-84 Thunderjet and the Republic F-105 Thunderchief. http://iberiana.wordpress.com/iberiana/geosurnames/kartvelishvili/




Ilia Chavchavadze works


The book features some works of Ilia Chavchavadze translated into English by brother and sister Oliver and Marjory Wardrop. The translations have not lost their literary value to the present day. The publication is intended as a gift to the Georgian reader in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the birth of the outstanding Georgian writer and public figure.

Text prepared for publication, with a preface and notes by Ia Popkhadze. Edited by Dr. Guram Sharadze.

Grigol Robakidse, ein georgischer Schriftsteller im deutschen Exil - "zeitgemass" oder "unzeitgemass"?

Dr. Nugescha Gagnidse

Grigol Robakidse (1880-1962) ist ein bedeutender georgischer Schriftsteller des 20. Jahrhunderts, dessen Werk eine erneute Wurdigung verdient. Ihm ist es gelungen, die heimische georgische Literaturtradition mit asiatischen Mythen und den vorherrschenden philosophischen Stromungen in Westeuropa im gemeinsamen Kontext zu verbinden. Die literaturwissenschaftliche Forschung hat ihn bislang kaum Kenntnis genommen, wenn er auch neuerdings in Georgien wieder gelesen wird. Seit den achtziger Jahren wird Robakidse in seiner Heimat neu entdeckt. Es gibt jetzt Ubersetzungen vieler seiner Werke ins Georgische.


Guram Markhulia - "Dashnaktsutun" and its politics in 1918-1920 years

Occurence and development of the Armenian nationalist movement from the very beginning was connected with international condition and to a large extent was defined by foreign-policy factors. So, Russian-Turkish 1877-1878 war ended with the defeat of Turkey and signing of the peace treaty of San Stefano, according to which Turkey lost a large part of its possessions in the Balkans (Serbia, Romania), Bulgaria became an independent princedom and, besides, Southern Bessarabia, Batumi, Ardagan, Kars and Bayazet were parted to Russia. Exactly by this time, the Armenian movement begins. In 1878, when Russian armies moved through Anatoly, seizing Kars, Erzerum, and on the other front - released Bulgaria and approached the vicinities of Constantinople, at that moment, Armenians, deciding that their hour had punched, sent the deputation headed by Armenian Patriarch in Constantinople - Varzhapetyan, which was received by the Caucasian deputy Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich. It was simultaneously followed by the reference of Armenian Patriarch Nersess to Russian government before the conclusion of the peace treaty of San Stefano, where he, "on behalf of Armenian populace" demanded "protection from Russia". Exactly this Armenian initiative served as a reason for including into the Treaty of San Stefano the paragraph #16, according to which Turkey should conduct reforms in the vilayets populated by Armenians, granting self-order to them. http://iberiana.wordpress.com/armenia-georgia/markhulia-6/

photo Nina  Chavchavadze.1857Nino Chavchavadze (1812-1857)

Nino Chavchavadze was stately, dark-haired, and dark-eyed, and attracted considerable attention for her beauty and charm. One of the literary essays about Nino Chavchavadze reads: "Nino was an incomparable musician, singer, and dancer; director and participant of family performances; artist; [a] magnificent embroider [and] rider; and a true lover of literature. At first sight, she charmed women and men of all ages and ethnicities-Georgian, Asian, Russian and European." Nino Chavchavadze and Alexandre Griboedov married in Sioni Cathedral on August 22, 1828. Unfortunately, the happy times Nino and Alexandre spent together as a married couple lasted just a few months. In 1828-four months after their marriage, and with Nino expecting a child-Griboedov traveled to Persia once again. In February, 1829, he was assassinated in Tehran. On July 13, 1829, Alexandre Griboedov's body was buried in the Mtatsminda churchyard of St. David's Monastery in Tbilisi. Nino had the following words engraved on the gravestone: "Your thoughts and deeds remain eternally in the memory of Russians, but why did my love for thee outlive thee?" http://iberiana.wordpress.com/iberiana/geosurnames/chavchavadze/


By Andrew Andersen and Georg Egge

As early as October 20, 1914 the Manifesto signed by Russian Emperor Nikolai II stated that Ottoman entry into World War I would "result in fatal consequences and open way for Russia to fulfill her for-fathers' missions on Black Sea Rim" After a series of Russian triumphal battles at the Caucasus front in 1915, the Imperial Government took diplomatic steps towards securing future conquests in the area. For that purpose, Russian emissary Dr. Zavriev was sent to Paris and London in mid-April, 1915, to discuss Russian proposals with the Foreign Ministers of the Allies. In Paris Dr. Zavriev was joined and supported by Poghos Noubar-Pasa who represented Western Armenians. According to proposals delivered by Zavriev and Noubar-Pasa to British Foreign Office, an "Autonomous State of Armenia" was to be established in Eastern Turkey after the Allied victory. The proposed Armenian state under formal Ottoman suzerainty and Russian protectorate, was to embrace not only the six vilayats forming "Turkish Armenia" but also part of Cilicia with the provincial capital of Adana and Mediterranean port of Mersina and a wide corridor that included Zeitun -Urfa area of the vilayat of Aleppo (Khaleb). http://iberiana.wordpress.com/armenia-georgia/armenia-2/

Georgian Manuscripts

The Gospel from Mokvi, 1300 The Gospel from Mokvi, 1300 The Gospel from Mokvi, 1300

Old Georgian manuscripts occupy a special place in the treasury of the Georgian national culture. In ancient Georgia great attention was paid to the decoration of manuscripts of books, beautiful fulfilment of the manuscript itself. The examples of Georgian illustrated books are by no means of the same important as the monuments of architecture, fresco painting, wood carving. In the period from the V to the XVIII centuries the ornamentation of Georgian manuscript books passed through several stages of development and each of them is characterized by fixed artistic and stylistic features.


Anna Nemtsova - The Republic of Spies

Abkhazia, one of the breakaway provinces over which Russia and Georgia fought in 2008, has been colonized by Russia's state security services. And the locals are hardly thrilled. On a sunny afternoon earlier this summer in the garden of a freshly renovated resort overlooking the Black Sea, a group of Russian security-service and Interior Ministry officers on holiday were raising their vodka glasses. The toast: to their future summers in the separatist republic of Abkhazia, once a favorite holiday spot for Stalin's elite and now, despite its nominal independence from Georgia, Russia's newest colony. After a war in 2008 to help Abkhazia and South Ossetia partition themselves from Georgia, Russia is making itself right at home.

The party's host, Alexander Tsyshba-the head of the privatization and investments department for the seaside city of Gagra-looked satisfied. After over 15 years of economic blockade by Georgia, investment in Abkhazia was almost nonexistent, the resorts were empty, and the economy was stagnant except for a trickle of business controlled by Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB). Now, with 3,000 Russian troops stationed in the republic, Tsyshba's old FSB friends have begun to buy up prime property across the breakaway republic. "To buy property in Abkhazia, the FSB officers use the special relationship of their long-term contacts with us", he explains with a smile.


August 2008

Historical Iberia's and Kolkhida's Territories Annexation

by Russians, Ossetians and Absua separatists

August 2008 | 7 agvisto | 8 agvisto | 9 agvisto | Sedegebi

Rozeta Gujejiani - Historical-Ethnographical Survey of Dali Svaneti/Kodori Gorge

According to the historical sources (Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Georgian) today's Zemo (upper) Abkhazia was called as Dali Svaneti, i.e. Abkhazian Svaneti, which was later named as Kodori Gorge. Since ancient times it belonged to Svaneti and it was obvious that this territory was always an integral part of Georgia.

Svaneti (including Dali Gorge) covered the entire mountain part of Georgia from the upper reaches of the river Kodori until the Likhi Range, from the existence of an ancient Georgian Kingdom Egrisi (15 - 14 centuries B.C.) till dissolution of Georgia into smaller kingdom-principalities (15 - 16 centuries).


V. Silogava, R. Shengelia - Tao-Klardjeti

The book contains two parts - in the first part is presented the history of five eparchies of Tao-Klardjeti and the second part contains photo album? in which there are presented most know churches and other architeetural monuments. There are discussed diferent issues not only about these monuments, but about other issues from the history of South Georgia in endnotes and enclosures. the book is belonged not only for specialists - for historians, philologists and etc, but for the society which is interested ancient Georgian culture. http://iberiana.wordpress.com/about/tao-klardjeti/


What a still magic word - Caucasus! How it breathes with memories indelible for the entire Russian people; how bright is the dream flashing up in mind hearing this name, the dream invincible for neither everyday banality, nor strict thrift! Is there anybody in Russia, whose family several decades ago had not sacrificed its blood and tears to this mysterious land, raised ardent prayers to heaven anxiously listening to threatening echoes of the exuberant struggle boiling far away?! Snow crowned giants and burning rays of the midday sun, and legends of old imbued with the deepest tragedy, and spontaneous heroism of sons of Caucasus -all that is sung by the people and prophetic mouthpieces of its world outlook, inspired by torches of the Russian idea - our great poets. The Caucasus cannot be alien to us: it has taken too many of various efforts, is too far organically connected with the great Russian world vocation, with the Russian cause.


Zviad Gamsakhurdia - The Spiritual Ideals of the Gelati Academy

Dear friends, even in extreme political turmoil, our ancestors were not oblivious of science, poetry, knowledge. Even in times of war they cared for the development of spiritual culture. This was Georgian history. To excuse ourselves today from a similar concern by reference to our being engaged in political struggle, with no spare time for science and culture, would indeed amount to a betrayal of our historical traditions.

I wish to illustrate this by the example of the person to whom I am dedicating this lecture and whose service to the Georgian state and nation is incalculable. What is most important, he was himself a paragon of all this, setting up from his capital city, Kutaisi, the great spiritual center of Gelati. The person I refer to should today serve as an example for us, for he combined the struggle with Georgia's foes and the building of the Georgian state with an extensive religious, philosophical, and scholarly activity that is truly astonishing. The man I am speaking of is David the Builder.


Vasil Kvirikashvili - Confrontation

There are relatively valuable data about Ossetia and Ossetians in written sources, scientific works or literary fiction. Most of these data informs us about ill-disposed attitude of Ossetians towards Georgian people which was noted for ruthlessness and hostile actions in most cases. Works of Vakhushti Bagrationi, German scientist of the Russian Imperial academy of Sciences Guldenstadt, Alexander kazbegi, Sofrom Mgaloblishvili, Kosta Khetagurov and other, as well as ethnographic and folk data.

It is not accidental that Alexander Kazbegi characterizes Ossetians negatively in all his novels and by showing their actions he demonstrates the situation which was similar to "Lekianoba" - in-raids of Lezgins and was called "Osianoba" - in-raids of Ossetians. This was a fight against Georgian people and involved robbing and capturing of people, and in case of resistance killing of those people.


Iranian-Georgian Relations in the 16th- 19th Centuries

The roots of Iranian-Georgian relations should be sought in hoary antiquity. As far back as in Achaemenid cuneiform inscriptions we find evidence on Georgian tribes that had contacts with Iran and other countries – largely through trade and caravan routes. Owing to its geopolitical situation, South Caucasia, especially the Georgian territory, lying between the Black and the Caspian Seas, was the object of confrontation between the major states of the West and the East.

The historical line of development of Georgia suffered a radical change in the 16th-17th centuries. The fall of Constantinople, as the capital of the Christian East, was followed by a total transformation of economic, political and cultural relations between the Near East and Europe. Temporarily severed from Europe, Georgia came under the influence of the Islamic East.

Early in the 16th century, both Georgia and Iran faced new state and political realities. At this time a new period began in the history of Iran: on the ruins of the Ak-Koynlu ("White Sheep") Turkmen state arose a powerful state – that of Kizilbash Iran, headed by the safavid dynasty. The expansionist intentions of Safavid Iran in the near East came into collision with Ottoman interests. South Caucasia and Georgia became one of the main arenas of struggle between Iran and Turkey, the cited region being a major bridgehead for domination in the Caucasia.

By this time the process of disintegration of the united Georgian state into kingdoms and principalities had completed. Several independent kingdoms and principalities took shape on the territory of Georgia: the kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti in Eastern Georgia, the kingdom of Imereti and the principalities of Guria and Odishi in western Georgia, and the principality of Samtskhe-Saatabago in Southern Georgia.

Thus in the 16th-18th centuries Iran had to deal with Georgia not as a single state but with several independent kingdoms and principalities, these entities often following divergent political courses. Iran’s interests were largely directed at Eastern, and partly Southern Georgia, for Western Georgia was basically under Ottoman influence.


Prof. Norman Stone: "Armenian story has another side" Commentary appeared in Chicago Tribune

All the world knows what the end of an empire looks like: hundreds of thousands of people fleeing down dusty paths, taking what was left of their possessions; crammed refugee trains puffing their way across arid plains; and many, many people dying. For the Ottoman Empire that process began in the Balkans, the Crimea and the Caucasus as Russia and her satellites expanded. Seven million people -- we would now call them Turks -- had to settle in Anatolia, the territory of modern Turkey.

In 1914, when World War I began in earnest, Armenians living in what is now Turkey attempted to set up a national state. Armenians revolted against the Ottoman government, began what we would now call "ethnic cleansing" of the local Turks. Their effort failed and caused the government to deport most Armenians from the area of the revolt for security reasons. Their sufferings en route are well-known.



Sxteen years ago the tragic fratricidal war between the Georgians and Abkhazs temporarily deprived Georgia of Abkhazia, one of the republic's most picturesque sites. Much has been written about the Abkhazian tragedy since, however a comprehensive and exhaustive analysis of the 1992-1993 events is still to come.
The prerequisites of the Abkhaz-Georgian confrontation go back at least one hundred years. In the 1860s, the Russian Empire drew up a so-called state program aimed at breaking up the centuries-old historical and cultural unity of Georgians and Abkhazs.


Gulaber Ananiashvili - The Agony of Empire of Evil

In 1453 Turks captured Konstantionopolis. Byzantium Empire the stronghold of Eastern Christianity ceased its existence. Osmans had blocked for a long time the passage into Mediterranean sea and Europe - Black sea and Bosfore strait. Georgia-backbone and axis for consolidation of relatives tribes in Caucasus, lost its function in strategically important (from the perspectives of trading, transport and political) segment of Eurasian communication space. She lost as well the role of stability guarantor in this polyethnical and ulticonfessional corner of the world.

Disintegration of Georgia led to the destruction of interconnected and balanced ethno cultural structure, accelerating in whole region painful processes of alienation, tribal and religious confrontation. Caucasus becomes the center of constant intensity, kind of "powder-keg" in the area of opposition of cultures, civilizations, religions. Iran and Turkey, first initiated destructive processes, got in turn a crushing blow. In fact, there appeared in Caucasus a new, most aggressive and crafty player - Russia.


Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians

Ossetians are a unique group in the Caucasus, in that they are the only ethnic group found on both the north and south slopes of the Caucasus, and moreover they speak an Indo-European language in contrast to their Caucasian-speaking neighbours. We analyzed mtDNA HV1 sequences, Y chromosome binary genetic markers, and Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) variability in three North Ossetian groups and compared these data to published data for two additional North Ossetian groups and for South Ossetians. The mtDNA data suggest a common origin for North and South Ossetians, whereas the Y-haplogroup data indicate that North Ossetians are more similar to other North Caucasian groups, and South Ossetians are more similar to other South Caucasian groups, than to each other. Also, with respect to mtDNA, Ossetians are significantly more similar to Iranian groups than to Caucasian groups. We suggest that a common origin of Ossetians from Iran, followed by subsequent male-mediated migrations from their Caucasian neighbours, is the most likely explanation for these results. Thus, genetic studies of such complex and multiple migrations as the Ossetians can provide additional insights into the circumstances surrounding such migrations.

Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Department of Evolutionary Genetics.



Don't cosy up to Russia, Europe

Stifling free media, arresting journalists, bullying its neighbours – Moscow is stamping on freedoms and the EU turns a blind eye

Garry Kasparov

guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 23 February 2010 12.06 GMT

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In the capitals of European democracies, leaders are hailing a new era of co-operation with Russia. Berlin claims a "special relationship" with Moscow and is moving forward on a series of major energy projects with Russian energy giant Gazprom, one of which is led by the former German chancellor Gerhard Schroder. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi traveled to St Petersburg late last year to join in the celebration of his "great friend" Vladimir Putin's 59th birthday. And in Paris, negotiations are under way for a major arms sale that would allow Russia to acquire one of the most advanced ships in the French navy.

At the same time, democratic dissent inside Russia has been ruthlessly suppressed. On 31 January, the Russian government refused to allow the peaceful assembly of citizens who demonstrated in support of ... the right to free assembly, enshrined in article 31 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation: the right "to gather peacefully and to hold meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches and pickets".


Otar Lordkipanidze


There can be drastically differing answers to this question, yet each can be relevant and wellgrounded. Thus, some may hold that the history of Georgian civilization should start from the time of creation of a single Georgian state with a common Georgian culture and national self-consciousness, i.e. from the 10th century. Others may consider the 4th century to be the beginning of the history of Georgian civilization, for at that time Christianity was declared the state religion which laid a firm foundation for the development of Georgian national culture and consciousness.

I personally believe it admissible to commence the history of Georgian civilization from the time suggested by the medieval Georgian conception as found in Kartlis Tskhovreba (hence for ward abbreviated to KTs) - "History of Georgia", namely, with ,King Parnavaz. I do feel and understand the complexity of such a conceptualization of the question. Therefore my views are highly hypothetical and I shall try to set down only some of them. However, first a few words on how civilization should be understood.

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Mr. Zviadi is the symbol of sacrificing to the homeland, boundless love to his nation and dedicating to it that is why he was assassinated so young by the forceful death. He deserved to be built monument in his life the monument for the total love. The fact that there still is his ruined house in the downtown of Tbilisi as a symbol of inaccessibility of the evil indicates to the immorality of the government and servile subordination by the nation. I ask the family and announce bank account where we, still not degenerative Georgians will be able to collect some means to restore “Kolkhuri Koshki” and bring the past greatness to it. This will be reflection of a little respect that Mr. President deserved by his life. For all us this will be the best opportunity of showing our gratitude and loyalty to the great Konstantine and his descendants.

Forgive Mr. President!

Professor – M. Tabatadze

Newspaper “Chronika” 21-27 December 2009

Zviad Gamsakhurdia

The Nomenklatura Revanche in Georgia


Following the collapse of Gorbachev’s Novo-Ogarevo process, and recognizing the inevitability of the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the Soviet leadership decided to create a new Empire model, the so-called C.I.S., which was to be established at a meeting planned for 21st December 1991 in Alma-Ata, when the leaders of the Soviet Republics were to sign an agreement establishing the new political entity. My refusal to attend this meeting was the development which triggered Moscow’s decision to overthrow Georgia’s legally elected Government. And no time was lost.

On that very day, 21st December, when the attention of the world was focused on the meeting in Alma-Ata, rallies began outside Tbilisi’s Parliament building. One rally was attended by supporters of the legal Government, and another consisted of the armed so-called ‘opposition’, infiltrated by officers of the Russian Army. Armored cars and military vehicles appeared on the streets. The anti-government forces began to shoot at unarmed supporters of my Presidency, and several people were killed.

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Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze


"Faced with the necessity of effective control of the Caucasian passes, which barred the way of the northern invaders, the rulers of the states of the Eastern Mediterranean-Middle Eastern area were always eager to have in Central Transcaucasia – in Iberia – a political organisation with sufficient strength to fulfil such a defensive function. The concept of the Caucasian Gate predetermined the fate of the GeorgianState from the Early Hellenistic time till the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Georgia’s annexation by Russia meant the loss of this important function of this state. I think, this function was the reason that Georgia, as pointed out by Cyril Toumanoff, is the only country of Christendom where socio-political and cultural development ran an uninterrupted course from the Classical period to the beginning of the nineteenth century.

This overwhelming interest of the Near Eastern-Mediterranean societies in Georgia was caused not only by the abstract defensive function of this country, but mainly by its concrete location at the edge of the civilised and barbarian worlds".

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Independent International fact finding Mission on the Confflict in Georgia Ambassador H. Tagliavini


Questions which the Commission is to answer quite definitely and unequivocally, are:

1. Is the fact of creating by force in Georgia’s territory a territorial political unit for non-Georgian ethnical group, who has an ethnical territory of its own outside Georgia and who is a diaspora, of naming this unit by the ethnonym of that diaspora and maintaining it by force, into indefinite future, a violation of most vital natural interests of Georgia, i.e., an aggression against Georgia and a lasting war against Georgia? If yes, then the Mission is to define, what legal or morally imperative ground there may be for restricting Georgia’s right and its government’s duty to defend its territory from this violence by any means, including arms?

2. Is it, or is it not, to be considered an ethnical cleansing and a genocide, when more than hundred georgian villages disappear, as a result of murderous massive violence, in a territory of 4500 square kilometers? If "yes", then is or is not, in the view of the Mission, (and if "not", what are then the grounds for that "not"?) Russia responsible for those crimes, committed in the presence of Russian forces, including the "peacekeeping" ones, with Russian arms and with Russian air and artillery support, in a puppet "republic" which never existed an hour without Russian military presence there?

3. Is, or is it not, known to the Mission the fact of declaration by Putin in the Russian TV that Georgia is to be "punished" by Russia, which means nothing less than usurping by Russia the right of "punishing" a neighboring country without trial and investigation?

4. Are there, in the Mission’s view, specific conditions and circumstances that make it possible or, even more, desirable and justified to legalize the demographic and political results of ethnical cleansing and genocide? If "yes", which are those conditions and what is the time within which those deeds become pardonable?

It is very difficult for us to escape the sad assumption that the antigeorgian (which, in the present context, means prorussian) bias of so many diplomats and experts may have one more motive. For two centuries _ from the Russian Tsar Peter I up to Nicolas II _ the central european intelligence and expertise (embodied, mainly, in the numerous bureaucracy, mentioned above) and the Russian resources (both the natural and the human) were combined to build up the second great and later the second strong empire in the World. It is natural to think that both parties to this alliance are eager to revive it in order to build up a mighty economical (and not only economical) body able to successfully compete with any other body on the Globe. This goal, if it exists, is natural and honorable. But the Commission, we believe, is not to be guided by pragmatic motives. Its only guide should be the truth, regardless of the possible consequences of exploring it, and truth is the only thing which is to be rigorously followed (fiat justitia, pereat mundus). Yet, if it is going to be decided, that practical results (stability, balance, etc.) are the most important goal, then it should be kept in mind, that (as we noticed before), demographical growth cannot become a ground for changing the status of a territory unless we want to stimulate "preemptive" ethical cleansing and genocide all over the World.


With best wishes and hopes for unbiased judgment

Popular Front of Georgia N. Natadze (Chairman)

Georgia’s National-Christian Party P. Nazarishvili (Vice-Chairman)

Union of Veterans of the Military Formation "Imedi" (Colonel in reserve, D. Khomasuridze, Commander)


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Basque premier named Doctor Honoris Causa

8 February 2006

The Basque president, Juan Jose Ibarretxe, has travelled to Georgia, to be named Doctor Honoris Causa. The Tbilisi State University has decided to confer this honour to Ibarretxe for "his efforts to promote human rights and strengthen the ties between Tbilisi and the Basque Country."

"It is an honour to be given recognition by an academic institution. It is an honour, because there is no freedom without education; there is no sovereignty without education; it is not possible to progress, to generate welfare, if this is not done based on a foundation of critical citizens, of educated men and women and therefore, the fact that a Basque Lehendakari is honoured thousands of miles from home, sharing his home here with you, is indeed a trememdous honour. Yet there is alos no freedom without respect for human rights and without respect for the different Peoples of the Earth such as yours and ours."

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