v mTavari problema v


v putini morigi `amerikuli kartofili~ ruseTis droebiTi mmarTveli, anu iankebis mesame Seteva saqarTveloze - zaza tabataZe

v eTnikur qarTvelTa enis SenarCunebis sociolingvistur aspeqtTa Sesaxeb TurqeTSi - inga RutiZe

v 2008 wlis 21 maisis arCevnebi iuristis TvaliT - avTandil kaxniaSvili

v `ajanyebis uflebidan" _ plutokratiul tiraniamde - avTandil kaxniaSvili

v putin-duginis geopolitikuri gegmebi da rusuli okupaciis dasasrulis dasawyisi - tariel futkaraZe

v ruseTis imperiis istoriul xlarTebSi - axmet zakiri, saTaTreTi

v pasuxi CoCievs okeanis gaRmidan - endriu anderseni, kanada

v sudeturi tragedia da saqarTvelos avtonomiebis problema - endriu anderseni, kanada

v xalxma aCvena vin aris misTvis Zvirfasi - britanuli proeqti “gamoCenili Tanamemamuleebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos televiziaSi. isa qaZoevis martirologia - saba iberi

v ilia WavWavaZis uneblie misia - saba iberi

v leqsikis sesxebis erTi Taviseburebis Sesaxeb TurqeTis eTnikur qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi - inga RutiZe

 

w "saqarTvelo"

afxazeTis dabrunebis gza

Sida qarTlis dabrunebis gza

saqarTvelos federalur saxelmwifod gardaqmnis - argumentirebuli mxileba

mesxeTeli Turqebis dabrunebis problema

natosTan saqarTvelos urTierTobis koncefcia

 

X mesame alternativa

X "marad iberia"

X iberia guSin, dRes, xval

 

X X X

zaza tabataZe

putini morigi `amerikuli kartofili~ ruseTis droebiTi mmarTveli, anu iankebis mesame Seteva saqarTveloze

Cveni qveynis mTavari problema, bolo Cvidmeti wlis manZilze ganviTarebul sabediswero movlenebSi, ganpirobebulia qarTveli eris permanentuli SecdomebiT da procesebis analizisadmi aSkarad subieqturi SezRuduli damokidebulebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, sabediswero momentSi Cvens mier daSvebuli Secdomebis tragikuli Sedegebis mZevlebad vimyofebiT mudmivad. yovelive amis mizezi gayalbebuli faseulobebis, Tu maxinji stereotipebis mier datyvevebul Cvens azrovnebaSia. azrovnebiTi aberaciisagan gamowveuli movlenebis mcdari da araobieqturi Sefasebisagan Tavis daRwevis erTaderTi gza winaswar akviatebulobisgan ganTavisuflebuli azrovnebaa. Tu rogor gavTavisufldeT primitiuli SezRuduli da mcdari SexedulebaTa sistemisagan da rogor logikur daskvnamde migviyvans Tavisufali neitraluri azrovneba, amis TvalsaCinoebisTvis warmosaxvaSi davuSvaT procesebis sapirispiro ganviTareba msoflio politikur scenaze, xolo piradi damokidebuleba Sesabamisi movlenebis Sefasebisa, gavaTavisufloT yovelgvari mikerZoebuli an winaswar akviatebuli naleqisagan, Cvens mier daSvebuli warmosaxva ki ganvaviTaroT realuris uku scenariT.

civi omi dasrulda amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis damarcxebiT. evropis yvela qveyanaSi damyarda bolSevikur-socialisturi sistema, daiSala Crdilo-atlantikis xelSekrulebis organizacia. gawiTlebuli evropis yvela qveyana varSavis xelSekrulebis wevri gaxda, xolo evrokavSiris yofil kapitalistur qveynebSi ssrk-is mxardaWeriT da xelSewyobiT aqtiurad ganixileba gegmiuri ekonomika da marqsistur-leninuri Teoriebi. rac Seexeba atlantikis iqiTa mxares, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis ocamde Statma damoukidebloba gamoacxada da rogorc damoukidebeli qveynebi gaeroSi gawevriandnen, xolo gaeros Stabbina moskovSi mdebareobs. damoukidebloba gamocxadebuli Statebidan ramdenime misisipi, luiziana, alabama, florida varSavis xelSekrulebis wevrebi gaxdnen da maT sahaero sivrces varSavis xelSekrulebis samxedro TviTmfrinavebi seraven, xolo teqsasis da niu hempSiris Statebi, romlebic aseve damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebi arian, varSavis xelSekrulebis karebs angreven. paralelurad, sabWoTa kavSirs da ramdenime mis satelit qveyanas varSavis xelSekrulebidan dapyrobili hyavs meqsika orasaTasiani armiiT da sakuTari usafrTxoebis momizezebiT emuqreba kanadas. TviT SeerTebuli Statebidan darCenil ocdaaTamde Statis erTianobas ubralod amerika hqvia, sadac damyarebulia aseve neobolSevikuri sistema. am axal amerikas marTavs komunisturi partiis rigiT meore generaluri mdivani. sabWoTa kavSiri, romlis inspiraciiTac imarTeba msoflio politikuri procesebi, emisrebs gzavnis amerikaSi. isini marqistul-leninuri ideologiis safuZvlebs aswavlian amerikis mmarTvel wreebs xolo sabWoeli komkavSirelebi atareben gamsvlel sxdomebs da aswavlian maT komunizmisken mimaval gzebs. amerikis komunisturi partiis generaluri mdivani mxolod ritorikuli gancxadebebiTLewinaaRmdegeba sabWoTa kavSiris politikur nebas kidev ramdenime Statis varSavis xelSekrulebaSi gasawevrianeblad. es sityvieri winaaRmdegoba mxolod sakuTari revanSistulad ganwyobili mosaxleobis dasaSoSmineblad keTdeba. msoflios arcerT analitikoss eWvi ar epareba amerikisTvis kidev ufro sazianod procesebis SeuqcevadobaSi. Cveni daSvebis mixedviT, aRwerili procesebis realurad ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi, ara mgonia romelime saRad moazrone obieqtur analitikoss eWvi Sehparvoda amerikis generaluri mdivnis sabWoTa kavSiris marionetizmsa da satelitizmSi. ra Tqma unda, msoflio istoriuli procesebis amgvari ganviTarebis SemTxvevaSi, amerikis komunisturi partiis generalur mdivnad mxolod da mxolod moskovis xeldasmuli da politikuri nebis gamtarebeli pirovneba dainiSneboda, `airCeoda~. am warmosaxviTi politikuri procesebis gaanalizebis Semdeg davubrundeT realobas da davsvaT kiTxva: ras uqadis dRevandeli msoflio politikuri procesebi saqarTvelos uaxloes momavalSi? winamdebare daSvebis WrilSi ganvixiloT saqarTvelo-ruseTis da amerikis urTierTobebi. amisTvis gavakeToT ukanasknel wlebSi ruseTSi mimdinare politikuri procesebis obieqturi analizi; ras warmoadgens putinis ruseTi da ra perspeqtiva elis Cvens qveyanas masTan mimarTebaSi?!

putini adamiani `arsaidan~ gamoCnda (Tu gamoaCines) elcinis ruseTSi im periodSi, rodesac didi albaToba iyo `generaliteturi~ gadatrialebisa. general lev roxlinis msgavsi ruseTSi ar daileoda da yvela maTgans ojaxis wevrebis saSualebiT ver moiSorebdnen. imave periodSi aRsaniSnavia elcinis ramdenjerme gaimpiCmentebis mcdeloba, romlis drosac isev `amerikuli kartofilis~, Jirinovskis da misi msgavsi politikosebis mxardamWeri gadamwyveti xmebis wyalobiT `mefe borisma~ gaagrZela ruseTis is politika, romelsac brwyinvale SefuTviT axorcielebs dRevandeli prezidenti da momavlis premier-ministri. putini xelisuflebaSi CeCneTis omis talRaze gapiarda da rusul erovnul grZnobebze yalbi manipulaciebiT gaxda xelisufali. pirveli, rac man moimoqmeda, iyo is, rom kubaze arsebuli ruseTisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi radiosalokacio saradaro sistemiT aRWurvili baza gaauqma, romelic mTel Crdilo amerikas faravda da iZleoda komunikaciebis faruli mosmenis saSualebas aRniSnul geografiul sivrceSi. ramdenime rusma generalma televiziiT gaaprotesta aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba da putins erovnuli interesebis RalatSi dasdo brali. dReisTvis am generlebis bedi ucnobia, yovel SemTxvevaSi, ramdenadac rusuli masmediis saSualebebiT gaxda cnobili, armiidan daiTxoves. putinis TanamonawileobiT 11 seqtembris amerikuli provokaciis Semdeg (es rom amerikuli provokacia iyo, amis dasturad kargad gaanalizeT maikl muris dokumeturi filmi `farengeiti 911 da kidev uamravi masala, romelic dasavleTis presaSi daibeWda, aseve TviTon amerikuli specsamsaxuris TanamromelTa Cvenebebi da Setyobinebebi. msgavsi provokaciebi damaxasiaTebelia yvela imperiis, maT Soris ruseTisTvis, gaixseneT moskovSi afeTqebuli saxlebi, romelic sababad iqna Semdeg gamoyenebuli CeCneTis aRsagvelad pirisagan miwisa) SesaZlo gaxda ruseTis sazRvrebTan natos xelSekrulebis Zalebi gamoCeniliyvnen. putinma TviTon gauwia avRaneTis winaaRmdeg avantiuras Tanadgoma da teqnikiTac daexmara natos jarebs, raTa ufro swrafad da safuZvlianad gamagrebuliyvnen ruseTis sazRvrebTan. sabWoTa kavSiris yofil Sua aziis respublikebSi ki amerikis samxedro bazebi ganlagda.

putinma gamoiyvana kosovodan is daumorCilebeli rusuli batalioni, romelmac elcinis dros moaxdina cnobili priStinis gadarbena. misi mmarTvelobis dros ruseTis yofili sateliti baltiispireTis qveynebi gaxdnen natos wevrebi. aRmosavleT evropis, yofili varSavis xelSekrulebis qveynebi natoSia gawevrianebuli, xolo ruseTis mosazRvre poloneTsa da CexeTSi, mosaxleobis 70% winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad, amerikuli raketsawinaaRmdego saradaro sistemebi ganlagdeba. saqarTvelo da slavuri ukraina natos karebs angreven. (TiTqos vinme uketavdes). ruseTis sazRvrebTan axlos dapyrobil eraySi orasaTasiani amerikuli samxedro kontigenti dgas. (niSandoblivia erayis gaWianurebuli dabombvis Jams, kondoliza raisis da vladimer putinis Sexvedra, romlis Semdeg baRdadi ramdenime dReSi TiTqmis ubrZovelad daeca).

putinis sagareo politikur `miRwevebTan~ erTad upriani iqneboda mis saSinao `warmatebebisTvis~ gagvesva xazi. jer misi ybadaRebuli 260 miliardidan 290 miliardamde mzardi samwliani sabiujeto programa rad Rirs xuTwledis asociacias rom iwvevs?! (mcireodeni cdomileba SesaZlebelia dolaris kursis cvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT). am biujetidan gamomdinare gaviTvaliswinoT, rom am `ayvavebuli~ da `gaZlierebuli~ putinis ruseTis samxedro biujeti mxolod 25 miliard dolaramdea, anu saxelmwifo biujetis 8%-mde da merve adgilzea msoflioSi. inglisis da safrangeTis, TiToeulis 50 miliardiani samxedro biujeti 2-jer aRemateba putinis ruseTis samxedro biujets. (rusul presaze dayrdnobiT TviT putinis qoneba orjer aRemateba wliur samxedro biujets) aSS-s biujetTan misi Sedareba sicils arada, tirils ki unda iwvevdes rus `patriotebSi~. amerikis samxedro biujetma wels 506 miliard dolars miaRwia da masSi ar Sedis erayis samxedro kampaniisTvis gamoyofili 150 miliardamde dolari. gamoZiebis federaluri biurosTvis gamoyofili 35 miliardi TiTqmis erTnaxevarjer aRemateba rusul samxedro biujets. Tu SevjerdebiT da SevadarebT natos qveynebis jamur samxedro biujets, miviRebT rom lamis cxraasi miliardis winaaRmdeg dgas ruseTis mxolod 25 miliardiani samxedro biujeti, Sefardeba ormoci erTTan. (am ZalTaTanafardobis fonze cota ar iyos gulubryvilod Cans zogierTi Cveni samxedro `eqspertis~ Sefaseba rusul safrTxeze, roca ruseTis xelisufleba imuqreba evropis Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebis xelSekrulebidan gamosvlaze: am xelSekrulebas evropa isedac ar asrulebda, xolo rusebi Tavis moZvelebul dafxavebul 90-iani wlebis ramdenime aseul tanks sakuTar teritoriaze CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken gadaaraxraxeben Tu piriqiT, im jigitis braxi-bruxs ufro hgavs, kintom rom gaaimasqna. detaluri informacia rusuli armiis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb naxeT www.presa.ge/index.php?text=news&i=19712 ).

albaT zemoTaRniSnuli STambeWdavi Tanafardobaa mizezi, rom putinis `Zlieri~ ruseTis saxelmwifo stabilizaciis fondis 200 miliardi dolari amerikul bankebSi ufro `saimedod~ inaxeba, xolo 2006 wels mxolod inglisis bankebSi ruseTis mdidar moqalaqeebs 160 miliard dolaramde Senatani aqvT, rac maTi saxelmwifo biujetis naxevarze metia. xolo Tu amas davumatebT amerikis, evropis da a.S. bankebSi rusul anabrebs, albaT, saxelmwifo biujets bevrad gadaaWarbebs. jamSi rusuli energetikuli `iaraRis~ (navTobi, gazi) Sedegi, kapitali isev ruseTis `mowinaaRmdegeTa~ bankebSi ileqeba, xolo putinis ybadaRebul qveynis `kagebezacias~ meore mxare aqvs: specsamsaxuris warmomadgenelTa mier didi biznesis kontroli sxva araferia, Tu ara maTi korumpirebuloba da demoralizacia. `kagebeSnikebi~ dagrovebul kapitals ki kvlav `mowinaaRmdege~ qveynis bankebSi inaxaven, anu maTi `moRvaweobis~ Sedegs, kapitals kvlav TavianT politikur `mtrebs~ andoben?! da amiT maTze damokidebulni xdebian... yvelaferi aqedan gamomdinare, ratom ar unda davuSvaT (me piradad amaSi darwmunebuli var), rom putinis mier ruseTis mediaze dawesebuli kontroli swored sakuTari qveynis sazianod mimarTul politikis miCqmalvas emsaxureba?! (am konteqstSi ganvixiloT saqarTveloc, radgan putini da Cveni xelisufali erTi da igive bostanSi amerikuli Teslisgan aRmocenebuli produqtia!). Tu ra cudi perspeqtiva elis saqarTvelos da ruseTs am ori `amerikuli kartofilis~, saakaSvilis da putinis xelSi (swored putinis, radganac medvedevi am etapze mxolod dekoraciaa, realurad putini darCa ruseTis droebiT mmarTvelad amerikuli davalebis brwyinvaled SesrulebisTvis) amis jerovnad gasaazreblad mokled SevexoT dRevandel SeerTebul Statebs. swored es imperia iqca dRes borot `karabas barabasad~, vis xelSic mravali qveynis `mmarTveli~ (putini-medvedevi, saakaSvili, iuSCenko, kaCinski, sarkozi da a.S.) ubralo xis Tojina, marionetia da romelTa did nawilsac mizanTropi `Teatris direqtori~ `misiis~ SesrulebisTanave axali takimasxara TojiniT anacvalebs. (mavrma Tavisi saqme gaakeTa, awi misi adgili sasaflaozea!...). amerikis politika SevafasoT ukanaskneli Cvidmeti wlis manZilze Cvens samSobloSi ganviTarebuli movlenebiT da ara mxolod amiT.

mxolod Segnebul provokators da naZiralas SeuZlia uaryos, rom qveynis pirveli prezidenti, humanisti da patrioti zviad gamsaxurdia SeerTebuli Statebis mier inspirirebuli putCiT iqna damxobili, Semdeg ki mokluli. yvelaferi daiwyo mama buSis cnobili gancxadebiT, rom zviad gamsaxurdia dinebis sawinaaRmdegod micuravs. xolo gadatrialebis procesebSi ruseTis xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa Tanamonawileoba edvard SevardnaZis xelmZRvanelobiT logikuria im martivi mizezebis gamo, rom im periodSi ruseTs putinis winamorbedi `amerikuli kartofilebi~ gorbaCovi, elcini, SevardnaZe, iakovlevi da maTi gundis wevrebi, amerikis xelis biWebi marTavdnen. bevrs kargad axsovs gadatrialebis Semdeg 1992 wlis Tebervlis mesame dekadaSi ruseTis centraluri televiziis mier gakeTebuli siuJeti: rom aleqsandre CikvaiZis ufrosi vaJis giorgi CikvaiZis `inicivativiT~ mis ofisSi moewyo edvard SevardnaZis da saxelmwifo mdivnis jeims beikeris Sexvedra maSindel saxelmwifo sabWos wevr Tengiz siguasTan. me piradad SesaniSnavad maxsovs teleekranze beikeris momRimari saxe da Tengiz siguas Camoyrili yurebi amerikis saxelmwifo mdivnis kiTxvaze: xarT Tu ara mzad amerikis mxridan zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis kanonierebis aRiarebis sanacvlod, SevardnaZe Camovides saqarTveloSi?!... (ratomRac arcerT qarTvel Jurnalists ar mosvlia azrad siguasTvis ekiTxa am Sexvedris Sesaxeb).

sakiTxis aseTi dasma katastrofis momaswavebeli iyo ara marto siguasaTvis, aramed kitovan-ioselianisTvis da Cvenc yvelam vixileT am Sexvedridan daaxloebiTYor kviraSi CamobrZanebuli didi `demokrati~ eduard SevardnaZe. Semdeg orma megobarma `demokratma~ jeims beikerma da SevardnaZem erTmaneTis loSniT aRniSnes TbilisSi respublikis moedanze saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dRe gamsaxurdias momxreebis dasarbevad mxedrionis mier atexili avtomatebis kakanis fonze, rac unisonSi modioda amerikelebis Camotanili `demokratiuli kartofilis~ SevardnaZis gabadrul, gaxarebul saxesTan. imdroindel movlenebTan dakavSirebiT agreTve imedis telemayureblebs hqondaT saSualeba moesminaT fineTSi prezident gamsaxurdias warmomadgenlis baton reno siraZis informacia, rom gadatrialebamde ramdenime TviT adre is iyo monawile mniSvnelovani politikuri `simpoziumisa~, sadac amerikis maRali rangis Cinovnikebi da axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebis ramdenime Seixi eduard SevardnaZes saqarTvelos prezidentad moixseniebdnen!.. igive imedis televiziis saSualebiT ganacxada gia maisaSvilma, rom dik CeinisTan Sexvedrisas dasmuli kiTxva, Tu ratom anacvaleben amerikis xelisuflebis umaRlesi warmomadgenlebi demokratiulobis da samarTlianobis umaRles principebs erT pirovnebasTan (igulisxmeba SevardnaZe) privatul urTierTobebs, Ceinim upasuxod datova, aseve niSandoblivia is faqti, rom 1999 wels ukve bil klintonis prezidentobisas, misive iniciativiT SevardnaZes hiustonSi enronis sakonferencio darbazSi udidesi humanistisa da mecnieris goeTes da nobelis premiis laureatis albert Svaiceris saxelobis premia gadasces. (albaT, sulmnaTi Svaiceri saflavSi propeleriviT trialebda am mkrexelobisaTvis), Tu ra `sikeTe~ moutana `amerikuli kartofilis~ SevardnaZis mmarTvelobam saqarTvelos, amaze komentaris gakeTebac zedmetad mimaCnia, xolo rac Seexeba misi mmarTvelobis dasasruls, dRes ukve eWvi aravis epareba 2003 wels amerikis centraluri sadazvervo saagentos (css) mier dagegmil `revoluciaSi~, ris Sedegadac moxda SevardnaZis Canacvleba morigi `amerikuli kartofiliT~ saakaSviliT. darwmunebuli var, am operaciaSi SevardnaZis udides rolze, rac SeiZleba umtkivneulod daeTmo savarZeli iankebis morigi marionetisaTvis.

dResac diskusiis sagani xdeba, Tu ra Soki miiRo noembris dReebSi eduardTan Sexvedrisas Jvania-saakaSvil-burjanaZis triumviratma, rom Jvaniamac ki Tavi ver Seikava da Secbunebulma ganacxada: isini kvlav gamoiyeneben aw ukve gadamdgari eduard SevardnaZis udides politikur gamocdilebas... triumviratis gaognebis mizezi, albaT buSi umcrosis satelefono zari iqneboda, riTac sameuls okeanisgaRmelma `mama marCenalma~ auwya xelisuflebis daTmobaSi SevardnaZis udides wilze da mamaTelis xelSeuxeblobis garantiasac mosTxovda! amis Sedegi unda yofiliyo, meore dRes saakaSvili buSTan satelefono saubriT da megobaro jorj-is mimarTviT telekamerebis win rom keklucobda, xolo mas Semdeg ra politikas atarebs mixeil meore saqarTveloSi (miqela pirveli hyavda saqarTvelos erTi udReuri mefe me-14 saukuneSi, daviT narinis Ze), ra Sors dgas misi mmarTvelobis forma WeSmaritad Tavisufali da samarTliani saxelmwifos marTvis principebTan, Tu romeli qveynis mfarvelobiT da patronaJiT agrZelebs nadguriscemas saqarTveloSi SevardnaZis Rirseuli mowafe da energiuli Segirdi, aravisTvis saidumlos ar warmoadgens, xolo ra zneobriv-sulieri principebi batonobs TviT am `Tavisuflebis~ qveyanaSi, amis gasarkvevad niuiork Taimsis wamyvani Jurnalistis, devid bruksis 2006 wlis 31 martis Zalian yuradsaRebi statia gavaanalizoT: (immigrant to U. S. have the right stuff), bruksi amerikul sazogadoebaSi emigrantebTan mimarTebiT Camoyalibebul or pozicias mimoixilavs: momxreebisa da mowinaaRmdegeebis. bruksi faqtebis interpretaciiT asabuTebs espanurenovani emigrantebisa da laTinosebis dadebiT gavlenas `ZirZvel~ amerikul sazogadoebaze. kerZod, emigraciis mozRvavebis Sedegad umZimesi danaSaulis ricxvi amerikaSi 57%-iT daeca. mesamediT Semcirda fexmZimobis da abortebis raodenoba mozardTa Soris. maT bevrad mcire seqsualuri partniorebi hyavT da SedarebiT gvian asakSi kargaven qalwulobas. Semcirebulia suicidis ricxvi mozardTa Soris. aseve klebulobs ganqorwinebis raodenoba axalgazrdaTa Soris. am moraluri gamococxlebis mizezi kaTolike emigrantebis religiurobaa. gansakuTrebuli Rvawli miuZRvis kaTolikur da evangelistur imigrirebul eklesiebs, rogoric aris magaliTad, Rev.Luis Cortes Nueva Esperanza. agreTve, aRsaniSnavia is mzrunveloba da yuradReba, rasac iCenen emigrirebuli espanurenovani kaTolike mSoblebi sakuTari Svilebis mimarT. bruksi aRniSnavs, rom emigrantTa mowinaaRdege brbos gancxadebiT amerika am talRis Tavdasxmis qveSaa, magram Tu es asea, Cven, amerikelebs, Tavs gvesxmis xalxi, romelTac uyvarT TavianTi Svilebi (verafers ityvi, mravlismTqmeli gancxadebaa). da bruqsi agrZelebs, rom swored es xalxi warmoadgens moralur ineqcias amerikis politikur sxeulSi. morwmune kaTolike emigrantebi asruleben umZimes samuSaos da qmnian saerTo Temebs, SenarCunebuli aqvT tradiciuli ojaxuri damokidebuleba. espanurenovan emigrantebs gacilebiT naklebi Semosavali aqvT vidre ZirZvel saSualo amerikelebs da mTlianad sakuTari ojaxis wevrebis keTildReobas xmardeba. Simmons Research-is Tanaxmad gaWirvebulma emigrantebma 57%-iT meti daxarjes sakuTari Svilebis avejze Tu inventarze vidre saSualo amerikelebma 2006 wlis manZilze. meqsikelma emigrantebma 93%-iT meti daxarjes sakuTari Svilebis musikaluri ganaTlebisTvis ZirZvel amerikelebTan SedarebiT. statiaSi bruksi imowmebs Consumer Expenditure Survey-is kvlevis Sedegebs, ris mixedviTac Raribi espanurenovani emigrantebi 30%-iT mets xarjaven saCuqrebze, vidre araespaneli TeTri amerikelebi. maTgan gansxvavebiT emigrantebi bevrad moyvarulebi arian sakuTari moxucebuli mSoblebisaTvis finansuri daxmarebis gawevisa da uyvarT didi saojaxo sadilebis mowyoba saxlebSi. axlad emigrirebul qalebs meqsikidan hyavT bevrad janmrTeli da Zlieri bavSvebi vidre adgilobriv amerikelebs. statiaSi kidev mravali argumentia espanurenovani emigrantebis sasargeblod. Tu imasac davamatebT, rom statistikiT amerikeli bavSvebis 60%-s an dedinacvali hyavs an maminacvali, amerikuli sazogadoebis metnaklebad realuri saxe warmogvidgeba. mxolod niuiork taimsis erTi Cveulebrivi statiis analizic ki gviCvenebs, rom amerikuli sazogadoeba Rrma sulier krizisSia da amerikuli cxovrebis wess kultivireba ki ara, vfiqrob, izolireba da Semdeg xangrZlivi mkurnaloba sWirdeba. aseve Zalian damafiqrebelia msoflioSi cnobili medievistis, semiotikis, filosofosis, mwerlis, mravali akademiis (maT Soris amerikis literaturis da xelovnebis akademiis) wevris, msoflios 25-mde umsxvilesi universitetis moqmedi profesoris, mravali literaturuli premiis laureatis umberto ekos 2006 wlis 26 seqtembers `Le Figaros~-Tvis micemuli interviu, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo misi axali wignis, `uZraoba kirCxibulad: cxeli omebi da Jurnaluri populizmi~ gamocemasTan. umberto ekos am uaRresad saintereso inteleqtualuri wiaRsvlebidan me mxolod ramdenime fragments moviyvan:

figaro: populizmis gavrcelebis Taobaze Tqven ufro adre gvafrTxilebdiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom populizms dRes mTeli evropa miaqvs. Tqven wignSi werT, rom Tanamedrove populizms araferi saerTo ar aqvs xalxTan. ratom?

u.e.: Tavad es xalxi ar arsebobs da imitom! Tanac es ubralod qveynis mosaxleobis aRmniSvneli kazusia, im mosaxleobis, romlis azriTac mxolod winasaarCevnod interesdebian, magram aq saubaria ara xalxze, aramed eleqtoratze _ ubralo statistikur erTeulze. populisti ara xalxs, aramed adamianTa erTobis idealur gamogonil proeqcias eyrdnoba. es hipertrofirebuli xalxosnoba maSin daiwyo, roca kenedim arCevnebi niqsons ara Tavis udavo politikur upiratesobaze dayrdnobiT, aramed sasiamovno garegnobis gamo mougo. ai, es aris aTvlis is wertili, saidanac yvelaferi daiwyo. mas mere, rac politikosisTvis xalxis winaSe gamosvla aucileblobad iqca, isini msaxiobebad iqcnen. aniWeben ra upiratesobas presasTan urTierTobas, politikosebs TavianTi gamosvlis Sinaarsi mxolod lozungebamde dahyavT da xSirad erT dRes micemul Sepirebas meore dResve iviwyeben. magram dro presaSi ise swrafad mihqris, rom amgvar gulmaviwyobas xSirad miesalmebian kidec. swored imis gamo, rom am tendenciebs SevwinaaRmdegebodi, mTeli cxovreba universitetSi davrCi, es xom is gansakuTrebuli adgilia, sadac axalgazrdobas mexsierebas uwrTob da istoriuli qronologiis grZnobas uRviveb.

`f~.: grZnobas, romelic, Tqveni sityvebiT, atlantikis iqiTa mxares, gansakuTrebiT neokonservatorebSi didi pativiT ver sargeblobs...

u.e.: Tanamedrove amerikas arc istoriis azri esmis da arc roli, romelic liderma qveynam unda Seasrulos. `gaeros~ konformizmmac ukve mwvervalebs miaRwia da igi sul ufro xSirad aniWebs upiratesobas saomar moqmedebebs. misi idea imaSi mdgomareobs, rom amerikis imperiis prestiJi lokaluri konfliqtebis meSveobiT danergos. Tanamedrove amerika regresis gzazea, rogorc kulturis ukmarisobis, aseve TavSeukaveblobis gamoc. amerikelebs hgoniaT, rom samyaro mxolod maTgan iwyeba da yvelafers, rac manamde Seiqmna, mTel mravalsaukunovan sibrZnes isini evropul gaukuRmarTebad miiCneven, iseve rogorc Cven siyvaruls istoriisadmi. SeiZleba gamovTqvaT varaudi, rom rom amerikelebs ukve axlave emuqrebaT koleqtiuri mexsierebis dakargva.

`f~: amis miuxedavad, aSS-is inteleqtualuri cxovreba sisxlsavse da mravalferovania!

u.e.: magram amerikel inteleqtualebs araviTari gavlena ara aqvT! isini mcire jgufebad da wreebad arian dayofili da mdidrul getoebSi _ sauniversiteto korpusebSi cxovroben. msxvili amerikuli gazeTebis gverdebze verasodes naxav profesorTa komentarebs, xolo roca isini politikiT daavaddebian xolme, akademiur samuSaos iseve miagdeben, rogorc es TavianT droze bzeJinskim da kisinjerma gaakeTes. ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom evropaSi yovelTvis angariSs uweven inteleqtualTa mier xelmoweril manifestebs, magram aq maTi xelaRebiT uaryofasac veravin bedavs!..

metri umberto eko italielebisTvis erovnuli sindisis simboloa... rogorc ityvian, komentari araTu zedmeti, aramed mkrexelobaa! urigo ar iqneboda, Cvens politikur fsevdo elitas Tu Caafiqrebda am masStabis inteleqtualis damokidebuleba evropul da amerikul koniunqturaze.

amerikuli umaRlesi politikuri eSelonebis dasaxasiaTeblad upriani iqneba 2007 wels msoflio ekranebze gamosuli robert de niros filmis `kargi mwyemsis~ ganxilva: filmisadmi miZRvnil preskonferenciaze de nirom ganacxada: Rrma mwuxarebiT vacxadeb, rom saagento (igulisxmeba `centraluri sadazvervo saagento~), romelic Cveni qveynis Tvali da yuri unda yofiliyo, qveynis sulad da gulad gadaiqca!...

me ar vapireb filmis mxatvrul Rirebulebebze saubars, mxolod filmis Sinaarss Sevexebi. evropuli Tu amerikuli presis aRiarebiT de niros safuZvlianad Seuswavlia dazvervis arqivebi, xolo dazvervis sammarTvelos eqs direqtoris jeims englTonis, generali `veluri bili~ donovanis (TviTon de niro asaxierebs) OSS-is (strategiuli servisis ofisi) damaarseblis (OSS Semdeg CIA-d anu centralur sadazvervo saagentod gardaiqmna) da kidev sxva gmirTa mxatvruli saxeebi da filmSi gadmocemuli movlenebi dokumentur saarqivo masalaze dayrdnobiTaa gadmocemuli. filmSi naCvenebia ielis universitetTan arsebuli yvelaze dafaruli sazogadoebis `Tavis qala da Zvlebi~-s xeldasmis ramdenime rituali. axalbedas (edvard vilsoni, asaxierebs meT deimoni), romelic am sazogadoebis wevrobis kandidatia, saritualo darbazSi SesvlisTanave ucxadeben, rom am organizaciis wevrebi iyvnen amerikis prezidentebi, viceprezidentebi, saxelmwifo moRvaweebi, msxvili biznesmenebi, didi gazeTis redaqtorebi da a.S. faqtiurad, is Zala, romelic ganagebs da warmarTavs amerikis saxelmwifos cxovrebas. organizaciaSi erTerTi stumrobisas mTavari gmiri ritualis wesdebis Tanaxmad meore axalbedas Seerkineba. naxevrad SiSvlebi talaxSi amoTxvrilebi erTmaneTs ebrZvian. Zveli wevrebi aivnidan maT Tavze daaSardaven. amiT aRSfoTebuli mTavari gmiri brZolas Sewyvets da sazogadoebis datovebas apirebs, magram misi rekomendatori awynarebs da uxsnis, rom es rituali (Tavze daSardvis) yvelam gaiara!...

sruluflebian wevrad kurTxevis ceremonialze mTavari gmiri SiSveli wveba marmarilos kuboSi da saZmos wevrebs andobs yvelaze sakralur istorias piradi cxovrebidan... FfilmSi naCvenebi es ori siuJetic sakmarisia am lucifer-arimaniT inspirirebul organizaciaze, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT sxvadasxva wyaroebSi moZiebul am faruli sazogadoebis kidev erT amazrzen ritualze. saZmos wevrebi erTmaneTTan kidev ufro daaxloebis mizniT urTierTSoris Ffizikur kavSirs amyareben... am filmis prizmaSi aucileblad unda gavixsenoT telearx rusTavi 2-iT gadacemuli siuJeti: Statebidan pirdapir eTerSi CarTuli Jurnalisti daviT nikuraZe amerikuli presis mimoxilvas gvTavazobda aRniSnul organizaciasTan dakavSirebiT (igulisxmeba `Tavis qala da Zvlebi~); es aris yvelaze saidumloebiT moculi sazogadoeba da maTTan inaxeba legendaruli indieli beladis jeronimos Tavis qala, rogorc simbolo saZmosi, rom misi wevrebi arian mama-Svili buSi, yofili prezidentobis kandidati demokratebidan jon keri da a.S. gadacemis mosmenisas gasagebi gaxda jorj buSis irgvliv agorebuli skandali; misma yofilma TanaSemwem mTel msoflios moasmenina satelefono audioCanaweri. arqiepiskoposi Txovs prezident buSs sajarod dagmos erTsqesiani, homoseqsualuri kavSiri, razec buSi pasuxobs, rom amas ver gaakeTebs, radgan axalgazrdobaSi es gamocdileba TviTon aqvs miRebuli... SesaZloa pativcemul buSs da sxva amerikel politikosebs es `gamocdileba~ aRniSnul farul organizaciaSi aqvT miRebuli. Tu amas kidev erT amerikul statistikas davamatebT, rom Statebis Tanamedrove axalgazrda mamakacebis 50%-ze mets es erTxel mainc `ganucdia~, maSin aRar unda iyos gasakviri `abu-greibis~ skandali (skandali normaluri adamianebisTvis, Torem ianki politikosebisTvis, albaT, cxovrebis Cveulebrivi wesi).

zemoT aRniSnuli faqtebidan gamomdinare gasagebia, Tu ratom iyo am cota xnis winaT mcdeloba homoseqsualizmis codviT daavadebuli adamianebis `sazeimo~ msvlelobis mowyobisa rusTavelis gamzirze.

nebismieri imperia, miT umetes amerikuli, sakuTari miznebis gansaxorcieleblad romelime marionet satelit qveyanaSi xels uwyobs am qveynis mosaxleobis zneobriv degradirebas, Sinagan gaorebas, Semgueblobas, nihilizms, rac ukve ganxorcielebulia CvenTan iankebis xeldasxmuli SevardnaZis da saakaSvilis reJimis meoxebiT. am etapze saqarTvelo amerikuli `eqsperimentis~ gadamwyvet finalur stadiaze imyofeba. Sedegi umZimesi iqneba saqarTvelosTvis Semdeg mizezTa gamo:

de faqto afxazeTi da samaCablos regionebi ruseTis mier mitacebuli teritoriebia, magram Tu mivmarTavT miukerZoebel, stereotipisgan Tavisufal azrovnebas, Cndeba ritorikuli kiTxva, Tu jer ssrk-s da Semdeg ruseTis marioneti xelisufleba Seelia varSavis xelSekrulebis yvela qveyanas, promoskovur qveynebs mTel msoflioSi, sakuTar saxelmwifos yofil ToTxmet respublikas, inteleqtualur Tu materialur simdidres (40 aTasze meti inteleqtuali gadinebulia amerikasa da evropaSi. swored maTi didi damsaxurebaa amerikis ekonomikis zrdis maCveneblis 70%). ra gaxda erTi samaCablo da afxazeTi Tundac dnestrispireTi? strategiuli mniSvnelobis yirimze (romelic namdvilad iyo ufro ruseTis istoriuli sakuTreba vidre ukrainis) ar aris amxela aJiotaJi atexili ruseTSi rogorc Cven ZirZvel miwawylebze. nuTu mezobeli CrdiloeTi qveynis strategiul kvleviT centrebmac dakarges racionaluri Sefasebis unari?

vfiqrob WeSmariti mizani ufro mzakvrulia ruseTisTvis da am miznis katalizatorad gamoyenebuli amerikuli `sacdeli baWia~ saqarTvelosaTvis.

SevardnaZis mier okeanisgaRmelebis dakveTiT Cabarebuli afxazeTi da samaCablo bumerangis princips ganaxorcielebs ruseTTan mimarTebaSi. rusul polit istebliSments SesaniSnavad esmis, rom afxazeTis damoukideblobis precendentis daSveba maTi mxridan katastrofa iqneba TviT ruseTisTvis. amitomac iankebis da misi marioneti kartofilebis mxridan ruseT-saqarTvelos politikur cnobierebaSi inergeba egreTwodebuli TandaTanobis principi, anu miuRebeli movlenis TandaTanobiT Seguebis da Semdeg am movlenis ganxorcielebis principi. Tu ruseTs da sqarTvelos samkuTxedis ori wveris funqcias mivaniWebT, mesame wveri udaod kosovoa, romelsac jokeris funqcia akisria mTel am perspeqtivaSi ganviTarebul politikur avantiuristul procesebSi. ismis bunebrivi kiTxva risTvis dasWirda SeerTebul Statebs da evropis mTel rig qveynebs uprecendento precendentis daSveba Sua evropuli qveynis, serbiisTvis ZirZveli miwawylis wagleja da misi damoukideblobis aRiareba. am dros es nonsensi xdeba evrokavSiris gafarToebis paralerulad qveynebs Soris sazRvrebis moSlasTan erTad. racionalur marcvals am uke ganxorcielebul aqtSi ver ipovi, Tu ar moviazrebT farul qveteqsts ruseTis winaaRmdeg mimarTuls saqarTvelos TanamonawileobiT. konkretuli jgufebis CanafiqriT atlantikis aRmosavleT da dasavleT sanapiroebze, TandaTanobis principiT ruseTma sakuTari interesebis winaaRmdeg unda gaimeoros uprecedento precendenti da aRiaros raime formiT afxazeTis an samaCablos damoukidebloba, rac zvaviviT daatydeba da katastrofis tolfasi iqneba ruseTisTvis uaxloes aTwleulSi. CIA-Si (centraluri sadazvervo saagento) damuSavebuli am gegmis gansaxorcieleblad, mimdinare wels saqarTveloSi movlenebi Semdegi sqemiT viTardeba: Cvens qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli procesebi da xalxis obieqturi, ukiduresi protesti xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg, albaT mainc okeanisgaRmeli emisrebis mier imarTeba. arsebul politikur ryevebis Tu kataklizmebis (7 noemberi) pirobebSi xelisuflebis arseboba da legitimuroba mTlianad iankebis keTil nebaze gaxda damokidebuli. Crdiloatlantikur aliansSi saqarTvelos gawevrianebac am gegmis Semadgeneli nawilia da masTan dakavSirebuli `sikeTeebi~ ufro ostap benderis mier vasiukovelebis, an arqifo seTuris mier sairmelebis moRorebas ufro magonebs, vidre realur WeSmarit mizans. xelisufleba mzadaa nebismieri avantiuristuli nabiji gadadgas Zalauflebis SesanarCuneblad. `cru~-s omi sWirdeba ZirZvel qarTul regionSi, rac isedac moTmineba dakarguli mezobeli saxelmwifos saRad moazrovne polit elitasac ki TviTmkvlelobis tolfas avantiuraze wasvlas aiZulebs, anu kosovos sapasuxo precendents gaameorebinebs. okeanis gaRma damuSavebuli gegmis xelSemwyobi faqtoria ruseTSi morigi `amerikuli kartofilis~ putinis `Sestiorkis~ medvedevis `arCeva~, miTumetes meurved isev putini hyavs droebiT daniSnuli. ruseTis axlomxedveli, revanSistul emociebs ayolili mosaxleobac momzadebulia am aqtis misaRebad. gegmis finaluri akordisTvis ki aucilebeli gaxdeba omi afxazeTTan. omi, romelic ruseTis interesebis moRalate putin-medvedevis xelisuflebas okianisgaRmelTa interesTa Sesabamisad kosovos precendents ganaxorcielebinebs. Cven qveyanas ki mxolod da mxolod Sesawirad gamzadebuli paikis roli akisria `css~ mier dadgmul tragikul speqtaklSi. amerikel xelisufalTa farisevluri gancxadebebi afxazeTis da samaCablos saqarTvelos ganuyofel nawilad cnobasTan dakavSirebiT, natosTan Cveni gawevrianebis da afxazeTTan omis fonze swored, rom rusul nacionalur revanSistul grZnobebis cecxlze Segnebulad navTis dasxmis tolfasi iqneba, Sedegad gaborotebul gabriyvebuli ruseTi `TviTmkvlelobis~ aqts uyoymanod moawers xels.

omi warmoudgenel ngrevas da ubedurebas moutans saqarTvelos. am SemTxvevaSi xelisufals erTi cnobili zRapris gmiris bedi elis. (mTavari gmirebi boroti `juja~ da cisferTvala qera `infantaa~. _ brWyalebi da zRapris interpretacia avtoriseulia).

samwuxarod Cvens qveyanas TiTqmis aranairi SesaZlebloba ar aqvs uari Tqvas iankebis mier moniWebul paikis rolze. upirvelesi mizezi Cveni ususurobisa Cvenive principebis gaorebasa da Rirebulebebisadmi farisevluri damokidebulebaa. erTdroulad RmerTis da mamonas skamze mokalaTebis mosurne erad viqeciT. Cveni konformizmi da farisevloba ganpirobebulia WeSmariti qristianuli Rirebulebebis ver SecnobiT. Cven barabas gzaze siaruliT daRlilebi, mamonas skamze visvenebT da qristianobaze mxolod ybedobiT vityuebT Tavs. Tu arada rogor SeiZleba qarTveli eris 75% zviadis da merabis gzis momxre iyo (imedis da rusTavi 2-is satelevizio gamokiTxvis Sedegi) da TiTqmis igive procenti natoSi gawevrianebas uWerdes mxars, anu im qveynebis samxedro organizaciaSi, romelTa nebiT da xelSewyobiT daamxes gamsaxurdia da saqarTvelos erovnuli niadagis uborotesi mtrebi SevardnaZe da saakaSvili daasves. Cveni polit `elitac~ mTlianad uprincipo, sxvadasxva qveynis agenti, ZalauflebiT Sepyrobili subieqtebisgan Sedgeba. arsebul situaciaSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo mowyobis SemoTavazebuli verc erTi varianti krizisidan Tavdaxsnis saSualebad ver gamodgeba. verc xelisuflebis cvlileba ver gviSvelis, Tuki iankebi erT marionets meore TojiniT Seanacvleben da ise ganaxorcieleben Cveni qveynis saziano gegmebs. qveynis saparlamento mowyoba `opoziciis~ mier SemoTavazebuli saxiT, sinamdvileSi erTi prezidentis ramdenime `prezidentukiT~ Secvlis mauwyebelia, radgan TiToeuli partiis Tavmjdomare faqtiurad erTpirovnuli gamgebelia sakuTari partiisa. TviT dRevandeli partiebi warmoadgenen budes: ucxo qveynis agentebisa, imunitetis maZiebeli usaxuri tipebisa, romelnic partiis liderebTan garkveuli safasuris gadaxdis Semdeg saarCevno siebSi mowinave poziciebs ikaveben. partiis rigiTi wevrebis ZiriTadi Semadgenloba sxvadasxva subieqturi Tu obieqturi mizezebiT xelmocaruli subieqtebiTaa dakompleqtebuli da partiaSi gawevrianebiT cdiloben isini ukeTesi perspeqtivis realizacias.

adgilobrivi yvela partiisaTvis viwro partiuli egoistur ambiciebis ganxorcieleba upirvelesi amocanaa. samSoblosadmi TviTSewirva partiebisTvis mxolod enis mosaqavebeli ybedobaa, radgan es diadi Rirebuleba aranairi saqmiT araa gamagrebuli. CvenTan arsebul partiebSi domxalia ideologiuri sazrisiTac. romeli partia, romel gansxvavebul ideologias axmovanebs TviTonac ver gaurkveviaT. CvenSi partiebis ideologiuri kuTvnilebis dasadgenad, TavisTavad gagarinis aRmarTze mdebare sagzao saministros Senoba gaxsendeba, ase brZnulad rom daarqva xalxma Sesatyvisi metsaxeli. kars momdgar saparlamento arCevnebze yuradRebis SeCerebac ar Rirs. Sedegi winaswar cnobilia, nawili gayalbdeba, danarCen xmebs opoziciuri partiebi da maTi maJoritarebi (dRevandel sinamdvileSi usaxuri partiuli siebis danamatebi) erTmaneTs waarTmeven da umravlesobiT kvlav `nac moZraoba~ mogvevlineba.

miuxedavad aRwerili mZime suraTisa, mainc arsebobs gamosavali Tundac Teoriuli, romlis arsic mdgomareobs DSemdegSi: partiebs saerTo saxalxo referendumis safuZvelze unda aekrZalos arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba. qveyanaSi unda ganxorcieldes xelisuflebis mowyobis saparlamento sistema, romelic dakompleqtdeba mxolod maJoritari deputatebiT. 70-mde maJoritari deputati savsebiT sakmarisi iqneba saqarTvelosTvis (200 da 300 milionian qveynebs sul 300 an 400 warmomadgeneli hyavT qveynis umaRles organoSi). mizanSewonilia saqarTvelo daiyos 70 saarCevno olqad daaxloebiT 50 aTasamde amomrCevliT TiToeul olqSi. deputatobis maZieblebma unda waradginon 10 aTasamde xelmowera. konkretuli kandidatis xelmomwers ekrZaleba sxva kandidatis mxardamWeri xelmowera. gamarjvebuli deputatebi spikers irCeven mxolod erTi wliT da yoveli wlis bolos kenWs uyrian parlamentSi misTvis vadis gagrZelebas. igive principiT irCeva premier-ministri, romelsac yoveli wlis bolos Rirseuli moRvaweobis SemTxvevaSi gauxangrZlivdeba vada parlamentis ubralo umravlesobis mxardaWeriT, xolo deputatis arasaTanado qmedebis SemTxvevaSi amomrCevels kanonis Sesabamisad eqneba ufleba gaiwvios uRirsi deputati saTanado raodenobis xelmowerebis Segrovebis SemTxvevaSi. amgvarad, xelisufleba mTlianad mosaxleobis kontrols daeqvemdebareba. rac mTavaria sxva qveynebis naZirala agentebs Znelad Semogvapareben. ra Tqma unda, xelisuflebis mowyobis am formas uamravi mowinaaRmdege gamouCndeba, pirvel rigSi ucxo qveynis agentebi, provokatorebi da sakuTar SezRudul azrovnebaSi Caketili skeptikosebi.. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti sityva saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ekuTvnis. Tu TiToeuli CvenTagani gaviTavisebT WeSmariti sityvis mniSvnelobas da davadgebiT simarTlis gzas, maSin veranairi imperiuli qveynis agentebi ver dagvamarcxeben da marionet takimasxarebad ver gvaqceven. mxolod maSin ganxorcieldeba didi ilias ukvdavi sityvebi `Cveni Tavi Cvenadve gveyudneso~ (da ara natos, katos, tasos, vasos, moskovs, vaSingtons Tu briusels) da saqarTvelo mxolod maSin aRasrulebs WeSmarit sulier misias, romlis arssac mTlianad gamoxatavs mowamebrivad aRsrulebuli eriskacis zviad gamsaxurdias sityvebi: `simarTlisaTvis mogvavlina ufalman Cven, simarTlisaTvis moavlina qarTveli eri, raTa man swamos WeSmariti, raTa man swamos RvTis gzis WeSmariteba, raTa man swamos qristesaTvis, raTa igi gabrwyindes msoflios xalxTa winaSe viTarca qomagi WeSmaritebisa~!

X X X

inga RutiZe

filoogiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

eTnikur qarTvelTa enis SenarCunebis sociolingvistur aspeqtTa Sesaxeb TurqeTSi

nebismieri eTnosis ganviTarebis istorias sakuTari kanonzomierebebi gaaCnia; msoflios yvela saxelmwifos politika, saSinao da sagareo urTierTobebi Sepirobebulia saxelmwifos eTnikuri, enobrivi da kulturuli mozaikiT.

eTnosebis Tanacxovrebas realurad arsebuli da sayovelTaod aRiarebuli bevri faqtori – ena, religia, rasa, socialuri klasi da a.S. ganapirobebs.

vordhofi (1987:43) aRniSnavs: “istoriis sxvadasxva monakveTSi erTi an ori, zogjer ki ramdenime faqtori xdeboda mniSvnelovani. dRevandelma msofliom eTnikurobis faqtori wamoswia wina planze, romelic kidev ufro met aqtualobas SeiZens, Tuki sxva faqtorebs da gansakuTrebiT ki enas, rasas an religias daukavSirdeba”.

de vosi (1975:9) aRniSnavs:
“eTnikuri jgufi _ es aris jgufi xalxisa saerTo TviTSegnebiT, tradiciebiT, romlebic ar aris damaxasiaTebeli sxva xalxisTvis. amgvar tradiciebs, Cveulebriv, miekuTvneba xalxuri da religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi, ena, istoriuli maxsovroba, saerTo winapari an kidev saerTo Tavdapirveli sacxovrisi. eTnikuri jgufis istoria legendebsa da miTologiaSic xorcSesxmulia, romelic TaobaTa biologiur-genetikuri uwyvetobis koncefcias moicavs, romelic zogjer eTnikuri jgufis mTavar maxasiaTeblad miiCneva”.

fiSmanis dakvirvebiT (1977:17):
“eTnikurobis cneba dro-JamiT gamocdil centralur koncefcias moiTxovs, romlis garSemo jgufdeba da Tavs iyris yvela sxva sakiTxi. es centraluri koncefcia eTnosis warmomavlobis koncefciaa, romelic ukavSirdeba biologiur warmomavlobas da amdenad im memkvidroebas, romelic dakavSirebulia “sisxlsa” da “xorcTan”, “grZnobasTan”, “mentalobasTan”, “produqtiulobasTan”, romlebic koleqtivis biologiuri winaprebisagan momdinareobs da Taobidan Taobas memkvidreobiTi gziT gadaecema”.

am “biologiur warmomavlobas, memkvidreobas” SeiZleba realuri safuZveli hqondes, an kidev miTi edos safuZvlad, an sulac future xasiaTisa iyos; ra sarCulic ar unda davudoT mas, is mainc eTnosis mTavar maxasiaTeblad miiCneva. biologiuri memkvidreoba nairgvari formebiT: fizikuri CvevebiT, eniTa da kulturiT vlindeba.

eTnosi obieqturi da subieqturi atributebiT xasiaTdeba. obieqtur atributebs – ena, religia, kulturuli maxasiaTeblebi, upirveles yovlisa, mkveTrad Camoyalibebuli instituciuri atributebi da amave dros aucilebeli istoriuli tradicia miekuTvneba; subieqturs ki _ eTnikur identobasTan dakavSirebuli grZnobebi da saerTo interesebi.

zemoT gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisebidan gamomdinare, ena xalxs Tavis winaprebTan akavSirebs. ena kulturis udidesi nawilia. xalxis, eTnosis cnobierebas, TviTSegnebas enis meSveobiT varkvevT. ena akavSirebs eTnoss Tavis istoriasTan, xalxTan da kulturasTan.

ena eTnosis erT-erTi Zveli da arsebiTi niSania, romelic yvelaze mZlavr da unikalur iaraRad miiCneva eTnosis SesakavSireblad. ena eTnosis kulturis ganviTarebis iaraRicaa.

rogorc cnobilia, qarTvelebi, saqarTvelos garda, TurqeTSi, azerbaijansa da iranSi mosaxleoben.

es naSromi ar gaxlavT TurqeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa istoriis an enobrivi situaciis detaluri analizi. Cven mxolod SevecadeT aRgveniSna enis rolis Sesaxeb, romelmac mTel rig faqtorebTan erTad aq qarTuli eTnikuri kulturis gadarCena uzrunvelyo.

yvelaze arsebiTi da mniSvnelovani TurqeTSi mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelebTan dakavSirebiT is gaxlavT, rom maT dRemde Semoinaxes qarTuli ena. es faqti kidev ufro did mniSvnelobas iZens, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT Tanamedrove msoflioSi mimdinare procesebs, rodesac eTno-demografiuli TvalsazrisiT mcire eTnosTa an kidev umciresobaTa enebi elvis siswrafiT qreba an ukve gaqra.

gvian Sua saukuneebSi saqarTvelos istoriaSi mimdinare mTeli rigi istoriuli da politikuri movlenebis Sedegad qarTvelTa garkveuli nawili TurqeTis saxelmwifoSi cxovrobs. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare mTeli rigi procesebis miuxedavad, qarTuli ena Zalze myari, daurRveveli organizmi aRmoCnda, romlis moSla da darRveva verc mwvave politikurma viTarebam da verc drom ver moaxerxa, radganac es iyo qarTvelTa eTnikuri erTobisa da kulturis uwyvetobis ganmapirobebeli. eTnikurma qarTvelebma qarTuli ena saukuneebs gamoatares da dRemde Semogvinaxes, rogorc eTnokulturuli informaciis unikaluri wyaro.

TurqeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa zusti raodenobis Sesaxeb oficialuri statistikuri monacemebi ar gagvaCnia. yvelaze didi raodenobiT isini iq cxovroben, sadac qarTuli istoriul-eTnografiuli mxareebi (tao, klarjeTi, SavSeTi, eruSeTi, kola, arTaani) mdebareobda.

qarTulad mosaubre eTnikur qarTvelTa didi nawili SavSeTis raionSi (imerxevi) cxovrobs. isini mosaxleoben agreTve urbanul da industriul adgilebSi: stambulSi, ankaraSi, bursaSi, inegolSi, golCukSi, adafazarSi, gonenSi, izmiTSi, trapzonsa da a.S.

TurqeTSi mosaxle yvela eTnikuri qarTveli orenovania, isini Turqul da qarTul enebze metyveleben.

qarTuli ena yvela eTnosisaTvis damaxasiaTebel sxvadasxva maidentificirebel markerebTan erTad aq mcxovreb xalxs erT eTnikur erTeulad ayalibebs, mis idetifikacias axdens. miuxedavad imisa, rom aq mcxovrebma qarTvelebma dRevandlamde SeinarCunes qarTuli eTnosisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli bevri niSani, qarTuli ena aq mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli kulturuli konteqstis matarebelia.

kiTxva ismis: rogor SeZles eTnikurma qarTvelebma qarTuli enis SenarCuneba? qarTuli xom araviTari oficialuri statusiT, socialuri upiratesobiT ar sargeblobs TurqeTSi?

1. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is garemoeba, rom mas iyenebs imerxevSi mcxovrebi mTeli eTnikuri jgufi. qarTuli sakomunikacio saSualebaa mTeli eTnikuri jgufisaTvis.

2. qarTuli ena gadaecemoda bavSvebs, Taobidan Taobas. ojaxTa garkveuli raodenoba kvlav aswavlis qarTuls bavSvebs. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom ena, romelic ar gadaecema bavSvebs, mkvdrad miiCneva. qarTul enas aq ojaxebSi funqcionireba ar Seuwyvetia.

3. eTnikur qarTvelebs ar SeucvliaT sacxovrebeli adgili. isini TavianTi winaprebis miwa-wyalze, tradiciul teritoriaze cxovroben (TurqeTis es regioni adre saqarTvelos Semadgeneli nawili iyo da, Sesabamisad, es teritoria qarTveli xalxis gansaxlebis areali iyo), risi utyuari mowmec aq dadasturebuli toponimebia, rac eTnikuri qarTvelebis am regionTan ueWveli kavSiris damadasturebelia. aq dRemde SemorCenilia istoriuli cixeebi, qristianuli arqiteqturis unikaluri Zeglebi, xidebi, romelTa saxelebi eTnikur qarTvelTa mdidari istoriuli warsuliTaa datvirTuli.

unda aRiniSnos, rom mTel rig sxva faqtorebTan erTad ena cocxalia manam, sanam arsebobas ganagrZobs toponimebSi, manam, sanam adgilTa saxelebi Semoinaxaven mas. rasakvirvelia, dRes adgilTa saxelebi oficialurad Turqulia, magram SavSeTis raioni qarTuli toponimikis mdidari panoramis samSobloa.

ena Tavisi arsebobis kvals substratis formiT tovebs, gansakuTrebiT leqsikaSi (dimendaali 1989:25; sasse 1992:18). qarTuli warmomavlobis toponimebs imerxevis yvela sofelSi (SerTuli, Sarabuli, sinkoTi, CaqvelTa, dasamobi, brigalara, davlaTi, oTklde, svirevani, jvarisxevi, Cixosxevi, bazgireTi, didxani, ziosi, xevwvrili, daba, ube, Cixori, TeTrakeTi, ardiaswminda, wyalsimeri, Soltixevi, bzaTa, weTileTi, xoxlevi, zaqieTi, maCxateTi, manatba, agara, imfxrevli, qoqlieTi, diobani, iveTi, gameSeTi, daviTeTi, farnuxi, didmere, rioleTi, gogieTi, gomTa, jvarebi, Cixvta...) ipoviT: cxrawyaro, wiqaruli, saWinke, navaxtanguli, Sindnarevi, xevi, sanafote, venaxZirai, samebaTi, wyaroTxevi, qviSnobebi, wiTelaZiri, karCxali, mindieTi, tbaTi, gaRmourienTi, sakrave, uwyloferdi, SiSvelferdi, melisakuntalai, sakenWo, RaripirTi, didferdi, eliawminda, nasaxlevi, Citaiyana ... (S. futkaraZe: 1993; t. futkaraZe: 2007; n. cecxlaze: 200).

zemoT CamoTvlili saxelebi amTlianebs im miwasa da xalxs, romlis mkvidrnic isini arian. ramdenadac eTnosis ena eTnikuri identobisa da kulturuli memkvidreobis centralur nawilad miiCneva, toponimebiT Semonaxuli da sicocxlegagrZelebuli ena erT-erTi gzaa eTnikuri jgufisa da kulturuli memkvidreobis gadasarCenad.

4. florisa da faunis, mdinareebisa da mTebis aRsaniSnavad dRemde qarTuli leqsikuri erTeulebi gamoiyeneba.

5. eTnikuri qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli soflebi bevri miTis, legendis, zRaprisa Tu sxvadasxva gadmocemis samSobloa, romelic eTnikuri jgufis istoriis mniSvnelovan momentebs asaxavs.

rogorc nensi doriani aRniSnavs: "es gadmocemebi, romlebic esoden ganuzomeli mniSvnelobis matarebeli da fundamenturia eTnosis TviTSegnebis gamosaxatavad, uciloblad saukeTeso saSualebaa misi bunebis, xasiaTis gadmosacemad, Tuki ena, romelzec eTnosi metyvelebda sxva eniTaa Canacvlebuli. aseve, umTavresi kulturuli mniSvnelobis - sauflo, RvTis sadidebeli sagaloblebis, sagmiro, genealogiasTan dakavSirebuli ambebis, eTnosis sulieri Rirebulebebis gamomxatveli koncefciebis gadmocema, romlebic winapris enobrivi memkvidreobiT aris moRweuli, imave sicxadiTa da siRrmiT sxva eniT Zalze Zneli an kidev sulac SeuZlebelia (doriani, 1999:32).

6. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos eTnikuri jgufis gansaxlebis sofluri buneba, urbanuli centrebidan moSorebiT cxovreba. eTnikur jgufs, romelic urbanuli centrebidan moSorebiT binadrobs, ukeTesi saSualeba eZleva enis SesanarCuneblad. rodesac sazogadoeba, eTnikuri jgufi urbanuli centrebisgan izolirebuli aRar iqneba, maT enaze gavlenas sxva ena moaxdens.

7. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori, romelic enis SenarCunebas uzrunvelyofs, am enaze molaparakeTa koncentraciis faqtoria (fiSmani 1972:126; edvardsi 1992:50; mesTire 1994; bredli 1998:51, 54). eTnikuri jgufi koncentrirebuli, kompaqturad dasaxlebuli mosaxleobiT ukeT inaxavs enas, vidre imave raodenobis jgufi, oRond sxvadasxva adgilze gafantuli. sxvadasxva teritoriaze gafantuli xalxi amcirebs SesaZleblobas im enis memkvidreobiT gadacemisa, romelzec saubroben.

8. eTnikur qarTvelTa cxovrebis wesi: eTnikurma qarTvelebma SeinarCunes cxovrebis tradiciuli wesi; maT SeinarCunes ojaxis tradiciuli struqtura - romelic agreTve enas ukeT inaxavs. Tanamedrove cxovrebis wesebTan adaptacia, cxovrebis wesis modernizacia aZnelebs eTnikuri jgufis enis SenarCunebas.

9. qorwinebis forma: Sereuli qorwineba ar aris gavrcelebuli eTnikur qarTvelTa Soris. Sereuli qorwineba xSirad im rigis faqtebTan erTad ganixileba, romlebic safrTxes uqmnis enas (Smidti 1990:15; zepeda, hili 1991:138, 141; diqsoni 1991:245; kampbeli 1994:196; brezingeri 1997:276; kroufordi 1997:57; kane 1997:241). cxadia, erTi enobrivi jgufis wevrebs Soris qorwinebas didi wvlili Seaqvs eTnikuri jgufis enis gadarCenis saqmeSi, rasac, rasakvirvelia, Sereuli qorwinebis SemTxvevebze ver vityviT. zemoT Tqmuli ise ar unda gavigoT, rom aq Sereuli qorwinebis faqtebi saerTod ar gvaqvs. kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom imerxevis mkvidr qarTvelTa Soris Sereuli qorwineba gavrcelebuli ar aris. eTnikuri qarTveli upiratesobas isev eTnikur qarTvelze daqorwinebas aniWebs.

zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare cxadia, TurqeTSi mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelTa istoria da ena mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan. ena akavSirebs maT TavianT istoriasTan, warsulTan, romelic auracxeli brZolebisa da omebis matianea. ena maTi kulturaa. rogorc fiSmani aRniSnavs: "kulturis udidesi nawili enaSia da gamoxatulia eniT".

ganuzomelia SavSeT-imerxevis eTnikur qarTvelTaTvis tradiciuli enis Rirebuleba, romelic maT maintegrirebel rols asrulebs. qarTul enas aq simboluri datvirTva aqvs, - is Tavisi integraciuli funqciiT mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs eTnikuri jgufis dRemde moRweva-gadarCenisa da ier-saxis SenarCunebisTvis.

2008 weli

X X X

avTandil kaxniaSvili

samarTlis doqtori
Tsu-is iuridiuli fakultetis asocirebuli profesori

2008 wlis 21 maisis arCevnebi iuristis TvaliT

saqarTvelos konstituciis preambulis Tanaxmad samarTlebriv saxelmwifos vaSenebT, xolo `yoveli piri valdebulia asrulebdes saqarTvelos konstituciisa  da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs (muxli 44.1). anu, xelisuflebaTa danawilebasa da adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa dacvasTan erTad, moqalaqeebi e. w. kanonis uzenaesobis principiTac unda vxelmZRvanelobdeT.

1995 wels miRebuli `uzenaesi kanoniT” moqalaqeebs  politikuri partiis, sxva politikuri gaerTianebis Seqmnisa da mis saqmianobaSi monawileobis miRebis uflebac gvaqvs (muxli 26.2). amasTan, konstituciiTve ufleba gveniWeba monawileoba miviRoT arCevnebSi, xolo saxelmwifo valdebulia uzrunvelyos amomrCevelTa nebis  Tavisufali gamovlineba (muxli 28.1).

bunebrivia, normalur viTarebaSi parlamentis wevrobis kandidats politikur gaerTianebebTan TanamSromlobas veravin aiZulebda da   arCevnebis saboloo Sedegi, SeiZleba, mxolod erTi amomrCevlis nebas gadaewyvita.   

saarCevno kodeqsSi saparlamento arCevnebis daniSvnamde erTis TviT adre Setanilma morigma aragonivrulma da antikonstituciurma clilebam saSualeba ar momca damoukideblad mimeRo monawileoba  arCevnebSi. sxvaTa Soris, ganviTarebul qveynebSi arc kanonmdeblobas cvlian saxeldaxelod da arc  uSualod winasaarCevnod Seqmnil partiebs aZleven morig arCevnebSi monawileobis uflebas. ase Tu gavagrZelebT, momaval saparlamento arCevnebSi Tika kandelakis `qristian-liberalur  nacionalur moZraobas” kaxa kalaZis `sruliad saqarTvelos aRorZinebis demokratiul-respublikuri  kavSiri” Tu gauwevs konkurencias. Tumca, 5 procentiani barieris gadalaxvis Sansi dRevandeli `xuTosnebis” garda,  `iumorist-SoumenTa” da  `wvimis momReralTa” politikur gaeTianebebsac eqnebaT, Tu partiul siebSi pirvel nomrebad  `gamarjebul xalxSi”  metad popularul (`cnobad”) saxeebs, mag.  vano javaxiSvils an zumbas Casvamen... 

manande, sanam iuristebs jer kidev hqondaT sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebaSi moxvedris mcire Sansi, sakuTari SesaZleblobebi mec movsinje.  2008 wlis 21 maisis arCevnebSi pativi mxvda wilad, #1 mTawmindis maJoritarul saarCevno olqSi parlamentis wevrobis kandidatad warvedgine 10-de partiisa da politikuri gaerTianebis mier Seqmnil saarCevno bloks `qristianul-demokratiul aliansi”, romelmac momca saSualeba, rogorc damoukidebel iurists, Sidapartiuli discipliniT SezRudvis gareSe, damecva amomrCevelTa interesebi.

saolqo saarCevno komisiam 2008 wlis 24 aprilis #89/2008 gankargulebiT gamatara registraciaSi saqarTvelos parlamentis wevrobis maJoritar kandidatad.

saarCevno kodeqsis bundovani debulebebisa da saagitacio masalis gavrcelebasTan dakavSirebuli sakanonmdeblo xarvezebis (maT Soris, terminologiuris) Taobaze gancxadebebiT saarCevno administraciisa  da saqarTvelos parlamentisadmi mimarTva 2 maisidan daviwye, Tumca arakompetenturobis da saqmisadmi upasuxismgeblo (formaluri) damokidebulebis gamo  arsebiTi pasuxi dRemde arcerT gancxadebaze ar mimiRia. magaliTad, rogorc Cans, kanonmdeblebsac ki ver gaurkveviaT beWdviT saagitacio masalaze saagitacio masalis `rigiTi nomeri” unda mieTiTos Tu saarCevno subieqtis. arada, am informaciis miTiTebis gareSe saagitacio masalis gavrceleba saarCevno kodeqsiT Aaris akrZaluli (muxli 75.5). Tumca, arc is icis vinmem Tu ra saxis pasuxismgeblobaa gaTvaliswinebuli organuli kanoniT `akrZaluli”  aseTi qmedebis CadenisTvis...  

saarCevno subieqtebisa da saarCevno administraciis mier konstituciisa da saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis darRvevebis faqtebis gasaCivreba 2008 wlis 17 maiss saolqo saarCevno komisiidan daviwye. 20 da 23 maiss  centralur saarCevno komisias,  27-Si Tbilisis saqalaqo, xolo 29 maiss saapelacio sasamarTlos (saaarCevno davebis bolo instancias) mivmarTe.  saCivar-sarCelebSi moyvanili faqtobrivi da samarTlebrivi garemoebebi, maT Soris `amomrCevelTa mosyidva-dainteresebis” Taobaze, calke msjelobis Temaa. amjerad, mxolod imas aRvniSnav, rom  safuZvlianobis miuxedavad moTxovnebidan arcerTi ar dakmayofilda. reagirebis gareSe darCa gancxadebac, romliTac prokuraturas ceskos moxeleebis mier `samsaxurebrivi siyalbis” Cadenis faqtis Taobaze vacnobe (danaSauli gaTvaliswinebuli ssk-is 341-e muxliT). 

saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsis  me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad centraluri saarCevno komisia valdebuli iyo, araugvianes 5 dRisa saparlamento arCevnebamde, Amasobrivi sainformacio saSualebebiT Ggamoeqveynebina amomrCevelTa dazustebuli saerTo raodenoba. aRniSnuli informacia gamoqveynda gazeTebSi `24 saaTi” da  `versia”.  amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobad miTiTebul iqna 3 456 936.

saarCevno kodeqsis  105-e muxlis pirveli  da 64-e muxlis me-3 nawilebis Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos centraluri saarCevno komisia, saolqo saarCevno komisiebidan miRebuli oqmebis safuZvelze, arCevnebidan araugviaenes me-18 dRes ajamebs saqarTvelos parlamentis arCevnebis Sedegebs da  adgens `amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobas”. amasTan, 105-e muxlis me-19 nawilis Tanaxmad aarCevnebis saboloo Sedegebis Semajamebel oqmSi miTiTebul unda iyos `yovel saarCevno olqSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobac”

saqarTvelos centraluri saarCevno komisiis mier  2008 wlis 5 ivniss miRebul iqna 21 maisis saparlamento arCevnebis Semajamebeli oqmi, romelSic amomrCevelTa raodenoba naCvenebia 3 465 736, rac 8 800  adamianiT metia beWduri mediiT adre gamocxadebul `dazustebul saerTo raodenobasTan” SedarebiT.

amasTan, Semajamebeli oqmis 3-4 gverdebze mocemulia amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenoba olqebis mixedviT, rac jamSi Seadgens 3 499 360 moqalqaqes da 33 624 aTasiT metia Semajamebeli oqmis pirvel gverdze mocemul amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobaze.

bunebrivia, rom yovel saarCevno olqSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis jami unda udrides saqarTveloSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobas. aqedan gamomdinare, is faqtobrivi garemoeba, rom parlamentis arCevnebis `Semajamebeli oqmi” ar jamdeba, sakmao safuZvels iZleva daskvnisTvis, rom centralurma saarCevno komisiam erTmniSvnelovnad ver daadgina amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenoba, riTac daarRvia saarCevno kodeqsiT dakisrebuli valdebuleba.

amasTan, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom  amomrCevelTa ricxvis sagrZnobi  (30 aTasze metiT) mateba  mxolod im  8 olqze modis (TiToeulSi 3-4 aTasiT), romlebSic arCevnebis bedi  e.w. Zalovani struqturebis warmomadgenlebma gadawyvites (mTawminda, krwanisi, samgori,  didube, gardabani, bolnisi, gori, senaki), miviCnev, rom   centraluri sarCevno komisiis mier Semajamebel oqmSi gaparulma Secdomam,  saaSkaraoze gamoitana saarCevno siebis masobrivi gayalbebis faqti  da, SeuZlebeli gaxada, arCevnebis Sedegebis gansazRvra amomrCevelTa realurad gamoxatuli nebis Sesabamisad.                 

Sevecdebi ufro gasagebad ganvmarto. mag. Tu qveyanaSi erTi milioni amomrCevelia, ar SeiZleba es ricxvi imisda mixedviT icvlebodes  vin romel saarCevno olqSi aZlevs xmas. cxadia, SeiZleba amomrCevelma registraciis adgilis mixedviT ar miiRos monawileoba arCevnebSi, magram TuU erTi saarCevno olqidan meoreSi gadainacvlebs, es faqti, Sesabamis siazec unda aisaxos. anu,  amomrCevelTa saerTo ricxvis gansazRvrisas, erTi olqidan meoris amomrCevelTa siaSi Camatebuli moqalaqe, yvela SemTxvevaSi unda moakldes adrindeli olqis amomrCevelTa ricxvs. amasTan, cxadia igive viTarebaa saarCevno olqSic da, Tu amomrCevlis gadanacvleba erTi olqis farglebSi gaxsnili saarCevno ubnebis doneze xdeba, saubno siebis koreqtireba olqis  amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobas ar unda cvlides (ar unda iyos Zneli gasagebi, rom, rodesac 10 megobari an Svili gyavs, maTi saerTo raodenoba igive rCeba, imis miuxedavad, xmas TbilisSi miscemen Tu baTumSi, xolo `Sejamebisas” sxvadasxva cifri ar unda gamogivides...).    

saarCevno kodeqsis me-9  muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad `saqarTvelos parlamentis arCevnebisTvis amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenoba ganisazRvreba arCevnebis  TariRis gamocxadebisas arsebuli bolo informaciis Sesabamisi mdgomareobiT”.  amasTan, sagulisxmoa, rom Tu adre moqmedi kanonmdebloba arCevnebamde 5 dRiT adre dadgenili raodenobis cvlas dauSveblad miiCnevda, `vardebis revoluciis” Semdeg, saaarCevno kodeqsSi Setanili cvlilebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis `koreqtireba”. Tumca, yvela SemTxvevaSi, arCevnebis dRisTvis kidev erTxel `gadazustebuli” es ricxvi olqebis mixedviT naCveneb amomrCevelTa raodenobas unda edrebodes.

amdenad, Tu ar CavTvliT im faqtobriv garemoebebs, rom ganvlil saparlamento arCevnebSi isedac xelovnurad iyo gazrdili amomrCevelTa ricxvi (3 milion naxevramde... anu, `ceskos” Tu vendobiT, faqtobrivad imdenive vyofilvarT, rac 1990 wels, anu sanam milionamde Cveni Tanamemamule sazRvargareT gadaixveweboda, xolo arCevnebSi afxazeTisa da Sida qarTlis mosaxleobac iRebda monawileobas...)  da sazRvargareT mudmivad wasul moqalaqeebTan erTad, gardacvlilebis `xmebic” mmarTveli partiis sasargeblod iqna miTvlili, xolo aseulobiT aTas moqalaqeze yalbi piradobis mowmobebi misamarTis gareSe gaica. mxolod is faqti, rom `ceskos” mier gamoqveynebul oficialur monacebsa da Semajamebel oqmSi mocemuli amomrCevelTa saerTo ricxvi ar edreba erTmaneTs (33 aTasze meti adamiania mimatebuli), sakmaris safuZvlad miviCnie Semajamebeli oqmis baTilad cnobisTvis.

aRniSnuli qmedebiT (saarCevno siebis Ggayalbeba da arCevnebis Sedegebis arasworad Sejameba) darRveul iqna  saqarTvelos konstituciiT  garantirebuli  Cemi ufleba monawileoba miviRo arCevnebSi  da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis pirveli oqmis mesame muxliT saxelmwifos mier aRebuli valdebuleba uzrunvelyos samarTliani arCevnebis Catareba. AamasTan, xelyofil iqna Cemi ufleba  da kanonieri interesi samarTlebivi saxelmwifos mSeneblobis procesSi (konstituciis preambulaSi Cemi `uryevi nebac” aris gamoxatuli...)  moviTxovo kanonis uzenaesobis principis dacva, miTumetes saarCevno administraciisgan.

amasTan dakavSirebiT, kanoniT dadgenil erTdRian vadaSi, 2008 wlis 6 ivniss sarCeli Sevitane Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul kolegiaSi. moviTxove `ceskos” gayalbebuli Semajamebeli oqmis baTilad cnoba da amomrCevelTa siebis dazustebis Semdeg xelaxali arCevnebis Catareba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis pirveli oqmis mesame muxliT gansazRvruli standartebis Sesabamisad, rac pirvel rigSi, xmis micemas iseT pirobebSi gulisxmobs, romlebic uzrunvelyofen amomrCevelTa nebis Tavisuflad gamoxatvas.

sarCelSi davasabuTe, rom Ggayalbebulma siebma da amomrCevelTa Tavisufali nebis gamoxatvis SezRudvam arsebiTi gavlena moaxdina arCevnebis Sedegebze, xolo gasaCivrebuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti ewinaRmdegeba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs da pirdapir da UuSualo zians ayenebs Cems uflebebsa da arsebiT kanonier interesebs (kerZod, konstituciur uflebas miviRo monawileoba arCevnebSi da movTxovo sajaro mosamsaxureebs daicvan kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebi, avaSeno samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo, romlis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli kanonis Uuzenaseoba da samarTliani arCevnebia).

Cemi sarCeli leiboristuli partiisa da gaerTianebuli opoziciis sarCelebTan gaerTianda. samma mosamarTlem saqmis ganxilva 6 ivniss samuSao dRis dasrulebis Semdeg daiwyo da gadawyvetileba Ramis pirvel saaTze gamoitana. sagulisxmoa, rom swored im dros, rodesac saqalaqo sasamarTloSi saparlamento arCevnebis Semajamebeli oqmis baTilad cnobis sakiTxi wydeboda, saakaSvilis mier parlamentis wevrobis kandidatTa Sekrebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba iqna miRebuli da parlamentis darbazSi mmarTveli partiis aqtivis mobilizacia daiwyo.

am viTarebaSi, gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom sasamarTlom (bunebrivia, personalur Semadgenlobas arsebiTi MmniSvneloba ar aqvs...) dadgenilad CaTvala rigi faqtobrivi garemoebebi, Tumca saqmeSi sawinaRmdego Sinaarsis mticebulebebi iyo warmodgenili. amasTan mosamarTleebma arasworad Seafases mkicebulebebi da, calmxrivad, absoluturad yvela sakiTxSi, mxolod mopasuxis pozicia gaiziares (miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo sxdomaze `ceskos” warmomadgenlebma sadao sakiTxze urTierTsawinaRmdego ganmartebebi gaakeTes). garda amisa, mosamarTleebma ar gamoiyenes normebi, romlebic unda gamoeyenebinaT.

is faqti, rom yovel saarCevno olqSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis jami unda udrides saqarTveloSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobas, ceskos warmomadgenlebmac daadastures, rodesac Cems mier sasamarTlo sxdomaze dasmul kiTxvas erTmniSvnelovani pasuxi gasces.

miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom, ratomRac  dadgenilad miiCnia is garemoeba, rom `amomrCevelTa specialur siaSi Seyvanili amomrCeveli imavdroulad aRricxulia amomrCevelTa erTian siaSic. marTalia, igi xmas aZlevs mxolod erTxel, magram dafiqsirebulia orive siaSi, ris gamoc zemoaRniSnuli monacemebi SeiZleba erTmaneTs ar daemTxven...” (gv. 10). Sesabamisad, gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawilSi, Semajamebel oqmSi arsebuli winaRmdegobis axsnas Seecada saarCevno kodeqsis me-13 muxlis me-2 nawilis `g” qvepunqtze dayrdnobiT, romlis ZaliTac im amomrCevlis gaswvriv, romelic Seyvanilia specialur siaSi aRiniSneba `komisiis wevria, saavadmyofoSia, winaswar patimrobaSia an naosnobaSia...”

xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebasac, rom sasamarTlom gadawyvetileba savaraudo msjelobaze aago da mopasuxe mxaris mosazrebas mxolod imitom daeTanxma, rom zemoaRniSnuli garemoeba (erTi da igive amomrCevlis dafiqsireba erTian da specialur siaSi) `SeiZleba iyos imis safuZveli, rom ceskos 2008 wlis 5 ivnisis Semajamebeli oqmis pirvel gverdze miTiTebul amomrCevelTa saerTo rodenoba da imave oqmis me-3 da me-4 gverdebze miTiTebuli saarCevno olqebis amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis jami ar emTxveva erTmaneTs”.

anu, sasamarTlom, erTis mxriv, aRiara Semajamebel oqmSi arsebuli Seusabamoba, magram, imavdroulad, faqtobrivad, saarCevno administraciis advokatis rolSi mogvevlina da daSvebuli Secdomis Tu DdanaSaulis (`arCevnebis Sedegebis arasworad Sejameba” an `samsaxurebrivi siyalbe”, ssk-is muxlebi 164 da 341) gamarTlebas Seecada, riTac aSkara mikerZoeba gamoavlina.

cxadia, aRniSnuli garemobeba arasakmarisia imis dasabuTebisTvis, rom  amomrCvelTa saerTo raodenoba unda gansxvavdebodes olqebis mixedviT naCvenebi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis jamisgan. marTalia, saarCevno kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs `specialur siebsa” da `amomrCevelTa siis danarTebs”, magram Semajamebel oqmSi naCvenebi unda iyos amomrCevelTa realuri  saerTo raodenoba qveyanaSi da calkeuli olqebis mixedviT (da ara `specsiebsa” da `danarTebSi” miwerili raodenoba, anu, faqtobrivad, saarCevno administraciebis manipulaciebiT  xelovnurad gazrdili amomrCevelTa ricxvi).

centraluri sarCevno komisiis mier Semajamebel oqmma saaSkaraoze gamoitana saarCevno siebis gayalbebis faqti, rac dasturdeba Semdegi faqtobrivi garemoebiTac: Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom amomrCevelTa ricxvis sagrZnobi  (30 aTasze metiT) mateba (TiToeulSi 3-4 aTasiT) mxolod im  8 olqSia naCvenebi, romlebSic arCevnebis bedi  e.w. Zalovani struqturebis warmomadgenlebma gadawyvites (mTawminda, krwanisi, samgori,  didube, gardabani, bolnisi, gori, senaki), cxadi unda iyos, rom am SemTxevaSi, marTlac `specifikur” olqebSi amomrCevelTa masobrivi `avadmyofoba, naosnoba,  patimroba da komisiis wevroba” namdvilad arafer SuaSia da,  arCevnebis totalur gayalbebasTan Tu ara, savaraudod, arCevnebis Sedegebis arasworad SejamebasTan mainc unda gvqondes saqme.

isic cxadia, Tu samarTliani arCevnebis pirobebSi, TiToeuli maJoritaruli olqis saboloo Sedegi  SeiZleba mxolod erTi amomrCevelis nebam Secvalos arsebiTad, ramodenime aTeul aTasiani sxvaoba imis dasturia, rom Semajamebel oqmSi ar aris mkafiod gansazRvruli amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenoba, rac kanonis imperatiuli moTxovnaa da `cesko” sasarCevno kodeqsis ZaliT iyo valdebuli es monacemi daedgina (muxli 64.3.a).

amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas,Ggayalbebulma (`gaorebulma”) siebma da amomrCevelTa Tavisufali nebis gamomJRavnebis SezRudvam, rac gamoixata Zalovani struqturebisa  da iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebis `mobilizebaSi” mmarTveli partiis mxardasaWerad, miTumetes iseT `specubnebSi”, romlebic saarCevno komisiebis wevrebs ar gaukontrolebiaTY (mxolod xmebi miamates sxva ubnebs)  arsebiTi gavlena moaxdina arCevnebis Sedegebze.

sarCelSi davasabuTe, rom Ggayalbebulma siebma da amomrCevelTa Tavisufali nebis gamoxatvis SezRudvam arsebiTi gavlena moaxdina arCevnebis Sedegebze, xolo gasaCivrebuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti ewinaRmdegeba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs da pirdapir da UuSualo zians ayenebs Cems uflebebsa da arsebiT kanonier interesebs.

miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom gasagebi mizezebis gamo uari miTxra sasarCelo moTxovnebis dakmayofilebaze. amasTan, xelhyo saqarTvelos konstituciis moTxovna sasamarTloSi saqmis Ria sxdomaze ganxilvis Taobaze (muxli 85.1) da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT garantirebuli saqmis ganxilvis Riaobis (sajaroobis) principi (muxli 6.1), rodesac, sruliad usafuZvlod, uari miTxra portatiuli xmis Camweri mowyobilobis saSualebiT sasamarTlo sxdomis audio Canaweris gakeTebisaTvis, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqme saarCevno subieqtebis da administraciis davas exeboda da sajaro samarTlebrivi interesebi gaaCnda.

garda amisa, sasamarTlom SemizRuda saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxliT garantirebuli sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba, rac dasturdeba Semdegi garemoebiT. 2008 wlis 7 ivniss dilis pirvel saaTze miRebuli gadawyvetileba Cambarda meore dRis, 8 ivnisis 13 saaTsa da 10 wuTze (saarCevno kodeqsis 77-e muxlis me-6 nawilis darRveviT),  xolo gasaCivrebis vada mewureboda 18 saaTze. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom qalaqis ganapiras (gldanSi) ganTavsebul sasamarTlomde mgzavrobisTvis Cemi sacxovrebeli saxlidan daaxloebiT erTi saaTia saWiro, gamodis, rom sasamarTlo xelisuflebas, gadawyvetilebis mosamzadeblad  daaxloebT 35 saaTi hqonda daTmobili, xolo 15 gverdiani dokumentis gasacnobad da saapelacio saCivris mosamzadeblad, faqtobrivad,  oTxi saaTic ki ar damitova.

miuxedavad amisa, Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis am gadawyvetilebis (saqme #3/1320-08) gasaCivreba movaswari. saapelacio sasamarTlos misi gauqmeba (usafuZvlobis da dausabuTeblobis gamo)  axali gadawyvetilebis miReba moviTxove, romliTac baTilad iqneboda cnobili  centraluri saarCevno komisiis Semajamebeli oqmi. amasTan, moviTxove ganexilaT Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos  im ganCinebis samarTlianoba da gonivruloba, romliTac uari meTqva audio Canaweris saSualebiT, istoriisTvis Semomenaxa dRevandeli saarCevno administraciisa da sasamarTlos warmomadgenelTa `profesionalizmis” amsaxveli dokumenturi masala.  

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saapelacio samarTloSi saqmis ganxilva 2008 wlis 9 ivniss Sedga, anu mas Semdeg, rac parlamentis  SenobaSi Sesulma parlamentis wevrobis kandidatebma sakuTari uflebamosileba ise cnes, rom saboloo instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas  ar daelodnen, gasagebi unda iyos, rom Cemi saapelacio saCivari ar dakmayofilda da saapelacio sasamarTlomac ar damrTo neba sxdomis  audio-Canaweri ganmexorcilebina. ufro metic, ceskos wevrTa daJinebuli moTxovniT, CanTis gaxsnac ki momTxoves, imisASiSiT, rom farulad ar gamekeTebina Canaweri (kidev kargi, piradi daTvalirebac ar Camitares tansacmelSi damaluli faruli Camweris aRmosaCenad... Tumca, Tavad faqti mravlismTqmelia da kargad warmoaCens ra `mentalitetis” xalxTan gvaqvs saqme).

vinaidan, sasamarTlo ganxilvas farsis forma mieca da Sedegi winaswarve iyo cnobili, Suamdgomloba davayene saapelacio saCivris daukmayofileblobis  SemTxvevaSi, saxelmwifo baJi  me-5 nomriT registrirebuli saarCevno subieqtisTvis an mTawmindis saarCevno olqis `friadosani” maJoritarisTvis daekisrebinaT, vinaidan, sruliad uangarod, faqtobrivad, maT interesebSic  vmoqmedebdi. sarCelis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi ki, aramarto sazogadoeba darCeboda mogebuli da qveyanaSi samarTlebrivi kultura  odnav win waiwevda, aramed,  saarCevno  manipulaciebiT `gapolitikosebuli” mewarmeebi da momRerlebic Tavidan aicilebdnen pasuxismgeblobas komunistebisdroindeliviT erTpartiul parlamentSi `moRvaweobisaTvis”.

sagulisxmoa, rom miuxedavad imisa, rom `damoukidebelma da miukerZoebelma” qarTulma sasamarTlom ceskos saarCevno manipulaciebs (maqinaciebs) gamarTleba mouZebna, 11 ivniss hainrix biolis fondis ofisSi sajaro diskusiaze miwveulma ceskos Tavmjdomarem, levan TarxniSvilma Semajamebel oqmSi amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis gansxvaveba saqmis didi moculobis gamo daSvebuli `ubralo SecdomiT” axsna (Sexvedras gogi gvaxaria uZRveboda, xolo damswreTa Soris iuristi giorgi CxeiZe da ekonomisti soso ciskariSvilic brZandebodnen). rogorc Cans, saarCevno administracias zneobis garda  e.w. zogadi unarebis mxrivac seriozuli problemebi aqvs...

Tumca, saapelacio sasamarTlos dasabuTebuli gadawyvetileba dRemde ar mimiRia, yvela SemTxvevaSi, minda ganvacxado, rom Secdoma is iqneboda  TarxniSvilisTvis 100 bati an Txa rom migvebarebina da dRis bolos gadaTvlisas erTi gamorCenoda... saparlamento arCevnebis Semajamebel oqmSi amomrCevlTa saerTo raodenobaSi aTeul aTasian `zedmetobas”, saliteraturo enaze sicrue an uvicoba hqvia, xolo samarTlebrivad - `samsaxurebrivi siyalbe” an `arCevnebis Sedegebis arasworad Sejameba”. msgavsi `SecdomebisTvis” mowesrigebul qveynebSi mxolod sazogadoebriv gakicxvas ar sjerdebian da sisxlis samarTlis wesiTac umkacresad sjian.

saqarTvelos yovelma moqalaqem, ara marto yvela donis sajaro moxeles, aramed sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebaSi warmomadgenlobis msurvelsac da saarCevno administraciasac kanonisadmi  pativiscemiT mopyroba unda mosTxovos. cxadia, es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis `uryevi neba”, marTlac samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos aSenebaa, xolo Tu fasaduri demokratiisa da plutokratiuli `babanis respublikis” statuss davjerdebiT, umjobesi iqneba sadeputato mandatebis ganawileba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministrosTvis da misi momxibvleli ministrisTvis migvendo. parlamentis wevrebsac pirdapir auqcionis gziT SevarCevdiT... am gziT, biujetic sakmao TanxiT Seivseboda, arc `bilbord-banerebSi” gadavyridiT fuls uazrod da revolucia-gadatrialebebsac avicilebdiT Tavidan...

X X X

avTandil kaxniaSvili

samarTlis doqtori

`ajanyebis uflebidan" _ plutokratiul tiraniamde

batoni akaki baqraZe arasodes yofila bolSevikuri partiis (`skkp"-s) wevri. markesiviT, yovelTvis mSobliur xalxs emsaxureboda da ara xelisuflebas. amisTvis, marTalia, iliasaviT ar dagvixvretia, magram sicocxleSi guli bevrjer davukodeT...

studentobisas ramodenimejer movaxerxe mis leqciebze daswreba.Lliteraturul miTebsa da idealebze saubrobda, magram gonieri adamiani xvdeboda, rom komunizmi utopia iyo, xolo misi mqadageblebi _ nomenklaturuli flidebi. Bbunebrivia, totalitarulma reJimma sajaro gamosvlebic aukrZala da samsaxuridanac daiTxova.

damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, rodesac zviad gamsaxurdiaze `gamarjvebulma xalxma" qveynis prezidentad yofili `cekas pirveli mdivani" airCia da sazogadoebis `kiCizaciis" (gaprimitiulobis) saxiT, batonma akakim erovnuli moZraobis tragikuli finalic ixila, Tavsdatexili ubedureba `did gabiTurebad" aRiqva da gulistkivili gagvando: `mTeli cxovreba megona, sinaTles vaRviZebdi, _ sibnele gamiRviZebia!"

marTalia, pirveli `saxalxo-demokratiuli ajanyebis" Semdgomi sruli Camobnelebisagan gansxvavebiT, `vardebis revoluciam" Tbilisi `sinaTlis qalaqad" aqcia, magram samarTlebrivi kulturis mxriv, rom qveyanaSi isev sruli wyvdiadia, SevardnaZis memkvidreebis konstituciisadmi (`uzenaesi kanonisadmi" ) an, Tundac saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebisadmi damokidebulebac cxadyofs.

bunebrivia, damoukideblobis aRdgenidan dRidan moyolebuli Tavs datexili kataklizmebisTvis mniSvnelovani pasuxsmgebloba sazogadoebasac awevs, magram, pirvel rigSi, im qarTvel iuristebs unda moekiTxoT, romlebic sainformacio saSualebebis keTilganwyobis meSveobiT arian `cnobadebi" .

`asaval-dasavalisadmi" (#14, 7-13 aprili) micemul interviuSi koba daviTaSvilma ganacxada, rom `saerTo-saxalxo ajanyeba ar aris saxelmwifo gadatrialeba. es ar aris SeTqmuleba da danaSauli. es, saerTod, ukanono qmedeba Aar aris. igive goka gabaSvilma da givi TargamaZemac ki sajarod daadastures, rom xalxs aqvs ajanyebis ufleba, imitom, rom es aris adamianis dabadebiTi ufleba, romelic asaxulia adamianis uflebaTa deklaraciis preambulis mesame abzacSi, sadac pirdapir weria, rom xelisuflebam ar unda aiZulos xalxi, isargeblos ajanyebis uflebiT, anu xalxs aqvs ajanyebis ufleba!"

uSualod, 21 maisis saparlamento arCevnebis wina dReebSic, batonma kobam, inga grigolias popularul `polit-SouSic" igive gaimeora da, albaT, ufro meti damajereblobisTvis gaeros deklaraciasTan erTad saqarTvelos konstituciis me-6 muxlic moiSvelia.

adamianis uflebaTa mimarTulebiT moRvawe samarTlis doqtorma, profesorma biZina savanelmac satelevizio gamosvlebsa da sagazeTo publikaciebSi araerTxel Segvaxsena `ajanyebis uflebaze".

sxvaTa Soris, qarTveli iuristebidan pirvelma, 1991 wlis dekembris `saxalxo-demokratiuli ajanyeba-revoluciis" samarTlebriv CarCoebSi mosaqcevad, adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia maSindelma iusticiis ministrma, batonma viqtor SaraSeniZem moiSvelia. jorj sorosis mier dafinansebuli 2003 wlis noembris `vardebis revoluciis" dReebSi ki, politikaSi aqtiurad CarTuli zogierTi `axalgazrda iuristic" sakmaod aqtiurad cdilobda parlamentis SenobaSi Zalis gamoyenebiT `nacionalebis" SeWra `ajanyebis uflebiT" gaemarTlebina..

vinaidan, arCevnebis totaluri gayalbebiT xelisuflebaSi mosulTa ugunurobam teritoriis kidev erTi nawili dagvakargvina da qarTul sazogadoebaSi kvlav revoluciuri ganwyoba daamkvidra, xolo staJiani meamboxeebi `revoluciis" mexuTe wlisTavisTvis morig `saxalxo ajanyebas" gegmaven, Tavi valdebulad CavTvale `gamarjvebuli xalxisTvis" SeZlebisdagvarad amexsna `ajanyebis uflebasTan" dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi garemoebebi.

amasTan, rodesac ajanyebasTan mimarTebaSi gabaSvil-TargamaZes vaxsenebT, samarTlianoba moiTxovs sxva, aranakleb `avtoritetuli `revoluciamcodneebi" gagvexsenebina. Tundac, 1917 wels ajanyeba-gadatrialebis gziT ruseTis xelisuflebaSi mosuli maSindeli umravlesobis (`bolSevikebis" ) mTavari ideologi _ vladimer lenini. `didma beladma", jer kidev saukunis win damoZRvra masebi: `revolucia _ kanoniT SeuzRudavi Zalauflebaao!" marTlac, Tu ruseTis imperiis `tirani" mmarTveli revolucionerebis gasamarTlebas da gadasaxlebas sjerdeboda, ajanyebis gziT xelisuflebaSi mosulebma `naTeli momavlis" Seneba mefis ojaxis daxvretiT daiwyes...

meore msoflio omis dasrulebisTanave, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generalur asambleaze miRebuli adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis preambulis mesame abzacis formulirebas ki im redaqciidan moviyvan, romelic iusticiis sabWos mier mosamarTleTaTvis gankuTvnil (3 aTas tiraJian) krebulSia mocemuli: preambulaSi (SesavalSi) xazgasmulia, rom adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis miReba imanac ganapiroba, rom `aucilebelia adamianis uflebebi daculi iyos kanonis ZalauflebiT imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom adamiani iZulebuli ar iyos, sxvas rom verafers gaawyobs, tiraniisa da Cagvris winaaRmdeg ajanyebis gzas daaadges".

anu, GganviTarebulma saxelmwifoebma swored imitom aRiares adamianis ZiriTadi (fundamenturi) uflebebi (sicocxlisa da usafrTxoebis, samarTliani sasamarTlosa da arCevnebis, sakuTrebisa da piradi cxovrebis, azrisa da gamoxatvis, Sekrebisa da gaerTianebis...) da aiRes valdebuleba kanonis ZaliT uzrunveleyoT maTi dacva, rom adamiani iZulebuli ar gamxdariyo `tiraniis" (Zaladobaze da TviTnebobaze dafuZnebuli reJimis) winaaRmdeg ajanyebis gzas dadgomoda. amasTan, mxolod mas Semdeg, rac `sxvas rom verafers gaawyobda"...

Sevecdebi, kidev ufro gasagebad ganvmarto. deklaraciis preambulaSi, faqtobrivad, naTqvamia, rom saxelmwifom adamians unda Seuqmnas Rirseuli cxovrebis pirobebi, mag. uzrunvelyos sasicocxlod aucilebeli sakvebiT, raTa iZulebuli ar gaxados SimSilis gamo, `sxvas rom verafers gaawyobs" (saTanado organoebisadmi saCivriT mimarTvis da protestis sxva formebis gamoyenebis Semdeg) saWmeli moiparos an sxva adamiani moklas. cxadia, am danawesidan ar gamomdinareobs, rom adamians qurdobis an sxvisi sicocxlis xelyofis ufleba aqvs. amdenad, mimaCnia, rom deklaraciis preambulaSi sakmaod gasagebad aris miniSnebuli saxelmwifoTa valdebulebebze adamianis uflebebis dacvis kuTxiT, swored im mizniT, raTa adamianebi iZulebulni ar gaxdnen, sxva mxriv rom verafers gaawyoben, agresia ukiduresi formiT gamoavlinon.

miTumetes, xazi im garemoebasac unda gaesvas, rom laparakia ajanyebis gziT `tiraniis damxobaze", xolo, rodesac qronikulad 90-95 procentiT irCev xelisuflebas da saarCevno proceduris mimarTac ar giCndeba protestis grZnoba, da mxolod uflebamosilebis miwuruls acnobiereb, rom diqtatori (`qaji") mogiyvania qveynis saTaveSi, ara mgonia, gonivruli iyos adamianis uflebaTa damcavi saeTaSoriso aqtebiT gaTvaliswinebuli protestis formebis gamoyenebamde, xalxs mouwodo samarTlebriv sivrceSi isargeblos ararsebuli `ajanyebis uflebiT".

amasTan, yofili Tanagundelebis saxelisuflo savarZlebSi `revoluciuri" (Tundac `xaverdovani") CanacvlebisTvis, rbilad rom vTqva, arakoreqtulia konstituciuri normebis gamoyeneba. miTumetes, saakaSvilis erTiani (`nacionaluri") gundidan `opoziciaSi" gadasuli iuristebis mxridan.

marTalia, saqarTvelos konstituciis me-6 muxli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas upirates Zalas aniWebs Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebis mimarT, magram, mxolod im SemTxevaSi, Tu is ar EewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias... amasTan, cxadia, sanam samarTlis normas gamoiyeneb, jer misi Sinaaarsi unda gaiazro saTanadod. miTumetes, saerTaSoriso samarTalSi marTlac rom arsebobdes `ajanyebis ufleba", sanam Seni qveynis konstituciis meeqvse muxlamde mixval, wina debulebebsac xom unda gadaavlo Tvali...

saqarTvelos `uzenaesi kanonis" me-5 muxli erTmniSvnelovnad adgens, rom xelisufleba konstituciiT dadgenil farglebSi xorcieldeba da `aravis aqvs ufleba miiTvisos an ukanonod moipovos xelisufleba".

saxelmwifos ZiriTadi daniSnulebac Tavisuflebasa da wesrigs Soris gonivruli mijnis gavlebaa. Sesabamisad, yvela is qmedeba, romelic xelisuflebis Zaladobis (revolucia-ajanyebis) gziT Secvlisken aris mimarTuli an miznad isaxavs konstituciiT daculi faseulobebiis xelyofas sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT aris dasjadi.

civilizebul saxelmwifoSi, ara marto xelisuflebis cvlis meqanizmi, aramed, moqalaqeTa mxridan protestis gamoxatvis formebic kanonmdeblobiT mkacrad aris reglamentirebuli. amasTan, umravlesobis interesebis dacva ise unda ganxorcieldes, rom umciresobaSi darCenilTa ZiriTadi uflebebic ar Seilaxos.

amdenad, arc msoflio da arc evropul samarTlebriv sivrceSi araviTari saerTaSoriso Tu Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi `ajanyebis ufleba" bunebaSi ar arsebobs da es `novacia" Cveni `telepolitikosebis" revoluciuri TviTSemoqmedebis nayofia, romlis kidev erTxel praqtikaSi ganxorcieleba qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas saerTod mouSlis isedac moryeul saZirkvels.

aqve, mcire komentars gavakeTeb gazeT `ganmanTavisufleblis" seqtembris nomerSi gamoqveynebul informaciaze, romelSic `ajanyebis uflebis" arsebobis dasadastureblad moyvanilia `socinternis" laTinuri amerikisa da karibis auzis regionaluri komitetis 1980 wlis gancxadeba imis Taobaze, rom am politikuri organizaciis mesveurebi `icaven xalxis uflebas SeiraRebul ajanyebaze, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar arsebobs an daxurulia Tavisuflebisken mimavali MmSvidobiani gzebi".

cxadia, laTinur amerikaSi an karibis zRvis kunZulebze mcxovrebi socialisturi orientaciis `revolucionerebis" mowodebebi evropul ojaxSi gawevrianebuli saqarTvelos samarTlebrivi sivrcis nawilad ver CaiTvleba da verc xelisuflebis Zalismieri cvlis CvenSi damkvidrebuli qronikuli formis gasamarTleblad gamodgeba. amdenad, umjobesia konstituciiTa da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT aRiarebul uflebebiT visargebloT da xelisufleba civilizebuli formiT (samarTliani arCevnebiT) SevcvaloT. `revoluciuri Jini" da moWarbebuli energia ki, iseve, rogorc inteleqtualuri potenciali adamianis uflebaTa damrRvevTa da arCevnebis gamyalbebelTa winaaRmdeg kanoniT gansazRvruli saSualebebiT brZolisken mivmarToT. amasTan, protestis gamoxatvac kanoniT daSvebul farglebSi unda movaxerxoT da qveynis garedan marTuli Zalebis (sxva arakeTilmosurneebis) interesebSi `amistebad" da `imistebad" ar unda daviyoT.

safuZvliani eWvi maqvs, `viRac mesames" xels aZlevs SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi da samoqalaqo dapirispireba. cxadia, rodesac Zalis gamoyenebiT miTvisebul xelisuflebas nebiT ar Tmob da yvelafers ikadreb skamis SesanarCuneblad, pirvel rigSi, im `tiransac" (SevardnaZes) sagrZnoblad aumaRldeba reitingi, vinc mSvidobianad gadaabara xelisufleba axalgazrda `revolucioner-reformatorebs". amdenad, sazogadoeba ar uda ahyves SesaZlo provokaciebs xelisuflebisa Tu fsevdo-opoziciis zogierTi warmomadgenlis mxridan da saprotesto aqciebi mxolod konstituciiT gansazRvrul farglebSi unda warmarTos. msofliom unda dainaxos, rom civilizebuli eri varT da viciT sad gadis zRvari sakuTari azris gamoxatvasa da danaSauls (`ajanyebas", `revolucias") Soris.

savsebiT veTanxmebi baton biZina savanels, rom 2008 wlis 5 invars da 21 maiss Catarebuli `spec-operaciebi" arCevnebad (miTumetes samaTlianad) ver CaiTvleba da sazogadoeba ar unda Seeguos nebis Tavisuflad gamoxatvis SezRudvas, magram dauSvebelia saxelisuflebo (samTavrobo) SenobebSi SeWra da Zalismieri meTodebis gamoyeneba. mxolod mSvidobiani, konstituciur farglebSi moqceuli qmedebebiT (saCivrebi, sasamarTlosadmi mimarTva, mitingi, manifestacia, daumorCilebloba) unda mivaRwioT imas, romGfaqtobrivma xelisuflebam aRiaros arCevnebis totaluri gayalbeba, srulyos saarCevno kanonmdebloba, daiTxovos saarCevno administracia, Seqmnas realurad damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli saarCevno komisiebi, an gadadges da arCevnebis Catarebis saSualeba sazogadoebis ndobiT aRWurvil da obieqtur specialur organos miandos.

gonivrulad mimaCnia, vadamdeli saparlamento arCevnebis TariRi da procedura iseT centralur saarCevno komisias ganesazRvra, romlis umravlesobas swored 1991 wlis `ajanyebis" gziT damxobili uzenaesi saabWos wevrebi airCevden, xolo danarCenebs 1995 wels arCeuli parlamentarebi. mag. 21 kacian cesko-Si 11 zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis warmomadgeneli iqneboda, xolo 10 SevardnaZis (SesaZlebelia, ceskos 10 wevridan or-ori 1992, 1995, 1999, 2003 da 2008 wels arCeul deputatebs SeerCiaT), rac gazrdida moqalaqeebis ndobas arCevnebisadmi da warmomadgenlobiTi organos legitimurobis xarisxsac mniSvnelovnad aamaRlebda.

yvela SemTxvevaSi, ceskom gonivruli saarCevno sistemisa da proceduris SemuSavebis garda, arCevnebis Catarebamde mkafiod unda gansazRvros amomrCevelTa ricxvi, SeiZinos aparatura, romelic gamoricxavs xmebis gayalbebas da izrunos sruliad damoukidebeli (politikuri ambiciebis armqone) saarCevno administraciis formirebaze. amasTan, maqsimalurad unda Seecados, Tundac sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis gamoyenebiT samarTlebrivi codnis gavrcelebas. bunebrivia, rom sanam moqalaqe arCevans gaakeTebs, is mainc unda avuxsnaT, demokratia, samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo, adamianis uflebebi da samarTliani arCevnebi ras niSnavs da parlamentis wevrs ra funqciebi akisria. is mainc icodes, keTilmowyobis samuSaoebi misi ZiriTadi saqme ar aris, xolo samarTlisa da ekonomikis safuZvlebis codnis garda, sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebaSi xalxis warmomadgenels garkveuli cxorebiseuli gzac unda hqondes gavlili da zneobiTac iyos gamorCeuli.

vinaidan, 2003 wlis noembris `ajanyebis" mesveurebidan opoziciaSi gadasuli `aqtivistebi" 2007 wlis 7 noembers sabolood darwmundnen, saiT mihqris maTi `revoluciis matarebeli", imedi maqvs, am Cixuri mimarTulebiT `erovnul-nacionalur moZraobas" aRar gaagrZeleben da sareformo oRro-CoRroebze jag-jagiT gadaRlil qveyanas ganviTarebis evoluciur liandagze gadaiyvanen.

marTalia, winaT ajanyebebs da dromoWmuli reJimebis Zalismier cvlas (saxelmwifo gadatrialebebs) `revoluciad" moixseniebdnen, magram Tanamedrove iuridiul leqsikonebSi am termins veRar ipoviT. karga xania aRiarebulia, rom iZulebis meqanizmi mxolod saxelmwifos unda gaaCndes da kanonmorCilebas unda uzrunvelyofdes. demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi Zalovani struqturebi qveynis teritoriasTan da mosaxleobasTan erTad, moqalaqeTa umravlesobis mier arCeul xelisuflebasac icaven da Zalismieri gziT Secvlas erTmniSvnelovnad danaSaulad moizreben, xolo konstituciuri wesrigis aRsadgenad kanoniT daSvebul yvela saSualebas iyeneben.

sxva saqmea, rom saqarTveloSi samarTliani arCevnebi 1990 wlis Semdeg ar Catarebula, magram esec Cveni dabali samarTlebrivi kulturis MmaCvenebelia da am sferoSi wesrigi Tavad Tu ar davamyareT, `ucxoeli damkvirveblebi" Cveni (udaod niWieri...) profesionali gamyalbeblebis manipulaciebSi verafriT gaerkvevian (cxadia, amis didi survilic rom hqondeT).

sagulisxmoa, rom Tbiliseli `vardosnebisgan" gansxvavebiT, kievel `narinjisfer" amomrCevelTa protesti konstituciiT gansazRvrul farglebs ar gascdenia da arc Zalismieri gziT daukavebiaT saxelisuflo dawesebulebebi moieriSeebs (`Sturmovikebs"), xolo sadao sakiTxi sasamarTlo xelisuflebam (Tanac, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom da ara `uzenaesma" ...) gadawyvita. amdenad, ukrainaSi,Ffaqtobrivad, araviTari `revolucia" (dasjadi qmedeba) ar momxdara da arc 90-s gadacilebuli procentebiT aurCeviaT axali `beladi".

sxvaTa Soris, im TviTgamocxadebul `afxazeTis respublikaSic", slavebisagan anbani, Cvengan ki, axlaxans, miwac rom `isesxes", gacilebiT gonivrulad moiqcen da miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvelobisaTvis ramdenime ukanono SeiaraRebuli dajgufeba ibrZoda, `saqmis garCeva" mainc sasamarTloSi amjobines. `prezidentobis" realuri kandidatic ramdenime SearCies (Tundac, sxvis dasanaxad...). yovel SemTxvevaSi, aTaswlovani saxelmwifoebriobiT da mdidari kulturuli saganZuriT Tu ver daikvexnian, rogorc Cans, samarTlebrivi ganaTlebiT Tu azrovnebiT (`mentalitetiT") namdvilad gvajobes. Aarada, evropa-amerikidan (`megobari qveynebidan") Camosulma maswavleblebma (`eqspert-konsultantebma"), rac Cveni samTavrobo Tu e.w. arasamTavrobo seqtoris swavla-ganaTlebaze (`treining-seminar-konferenciebze") dro da fuli ("valuta") daxarjes...

rogorc Cans, qarTveli politikosebis erT nawils demokratiazec da ajanyebazec erTob specifikuri (`originaluri") warmodgena aqvT. amdenad, Tu xelisufleba-opozicia `ajanyobia-revolucionerobanas" ar moiSlis, didi Sansia, rom amomrCevlis TvalSi, evro-amerikulma modelmac sruli diskreditacia ganicados da `qarTuli demokratia", ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, ruseT-belorusul an Turqmenul-azerbaijanuls (SevardnaZe-abaSiZis reJimebTan miaxloebuls) daemsgavsos, xolo uaress SemTxvevaSi, fasadur-karikaturuli elementebiT gajerebul kuburs an CrdiloeT koreuls (Wabua amirejibis `arqifo seTuriseuls" an jorj oruelis revoluciuri ideebiT aRgznebuli `cxovelebis fermaSi" aprobirebuls...).

Aadamiansac, Tu ra donemde umRvrevs gonebas revoluciuri Jini Tu aRtyineba, frangma `ganmanaTleblebma" sakuTar Tavze (zogierTma, pirdapiri mniSvnelobiTac), jer-kidev XVIII saukuneSi iwvnies. absoluturi monarqiis damxobis Semdeg ki, sul male, faqtobrivad, tirania (Zaladobasa da TviTnebobaze dafuZnebuli reJimi) miiRes...

marTalia, `aCrdili" karga xans isev Suagul evropaSi dadioda, magram morigi socialuri eqsperimentisaTvis, SedarebiT dabali samarTlebrivi kulturis mqone periferia SeirCa. 1917 wlis revolucia-gadatrialebam demokratizaciis gzaze mdgari ruseTis imperia daangria da dedamiwis 1/6-ze totalitaruli reJimi daamkvidra. naTeli momavlis (`komunizmis") mSenebloba ki, im mefis ojaxis dedabudianad amowyvetiT daiwyo, romelic monarqiis aqtiur mowinaaRmdegeebs (`teroristebs") sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebis safuZvelze aZevebda dedaqalaqidan. amasTan, `proletariatis diqtaturis" damyarebisTanave, `gamarjvebulma xalxma", axali saxelmwifos simbolod partiuli (`bolSevikuri"), uro-namgliani wiTeli droSa daawesa.

amis Semdeg, XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi,Mmarqsizm-leninizmis virusi aziaSic farTod gavrcelda da misi Tanmdevi `revoluciuri procesebi", marTva-gamgeobis formasTan da xelisuflebis sakadro SemadgenlobasTan erTad, miliardi Cinelis saxelmwifo simboloebsac arsebiTad Seexo (`didma kedelmac" ver daicva...).

evropisa da aziis mijnaze, `RvTismSoblis wilxvedr miwaze" dafuZnebuli `erTi muWa" qarTvelebi (evropaSi erT, saSualo zomis qalaqSi rom daveteviT, aziaSi ki, didi sofelic gveyofoda...) xom yvelasagan gamovirCeviT da, ara Tu sxvis, aramed sakuTar Secdomebzec verafers vswavlobT...

XX saukunis miwuruls, 70-wliani bolSevikuri totalitarizmisagan TavdaRweulebma, damoukideblobis aRdgenisTanave, jer iyo, 90%-iT arCeul `erovnul xelisuflebas" weliwadi ar vacaleT da `saxalxo-demokratiuli ajanyebis" gziT davamxeT. Aamis Semdeg, igive procentuli maCveneblebiT, `tirani" komunistebisdroindeli `cekas pirveli mdivani" prezidentad gavamweseT da isic, uflebamosilebis vadis gasvlamde 4 TviT adre gadavagdeT (Tu, TviTon `gadagvagdo") `vardebis revoluciiT". amasTan, Tu 1921 wels, `wiTlebma" bolSevikuri almebi Zalismieri gziT mogvaxvies Tavs, XXI saukunis `gamarjvebulma qarTvelebma", ukve sakuTari nebiT aRmarTes `revoluciuri" simbolo saxelisuflebo dawesebulebebze.

Tumca, progresic aSkaraa... arc frangebiviT gametebiT davrevivarT inteligencias (mxolod samuSaodan daviTxoveT da `CavrecxeT"...), arc rusebiviT gagviJletia mosaxleobis naxevari (mxolod cxovreba gavuZvireT da emigraciaSi wasvla vaiZuleT...) da arc CinelebiviT dagviwiokebia `imperatoris" ojaxi (mxolod, is `pirveli" gavuSviT pensiaze, romelic 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, faqtobrivad, erTpirovnulad marTavda qveyanas). erTaderTi, rac ZirZveli `revolucionerebiviT" movimoqmedeT, xelisuflebis `sakadro gadaxaliseba" da tradiciuli simboloebis cvla iyo. N

garda amisa, specifikuri (`erovnul-nacionaluri" ) revoluciuri `novaciebiTac" gavaoceT msoflio. aba, romeli frangi, rusi an Cineli, ukraineli Tu afsua-afxazi, senegaleli Tu vietnameli an, Tundac popularuli anegdotebis gmiri `CuqCa" moifiqrebda, Tanac XXI saukuneSi, `revoluciis" wlisTavi samebis mSenebare taZarSi aReniSna pompezurad da iqve gaekeTebina politikuri gancxadebebi `revoluciis eqsportis" Taobaze. amasTan, `respublikis" moedani `revoluciisad" gadaenaTla da saxelmwifo (faqtobrivad, partiuli) droSebi im eklesiaSi gamoefina, romelic konstituciiT (`uzenaesi kanoniT" ) damoukidebelia saxelmwifosagan.

naucbaTevad miRebul gerbze upiratesoba `erTobis Zalas" mivaniWeT. arada,MTviTmyofadi kulturiT da inteleqtiT gamorCeulma mcirericxovanma erma, umjobesia aqcenti, ufro codnaze, ganaTlebasa da informirebulobaze gaakeTos. darwmunebuli var, rom mxolod samarTlebrivi ganswavlulobiT da kulturiT gamorCeuli moqalaqeebi SeZleben damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis SenarCunebas.

saxelmwifosa da samarTlis safuZvlebSi gauTvicnobierebeli mosaxleobis `erTobis Zala" ki, pirveli `saxalxo ajanyebis" dReebSic SevigrZeniT da `vardebis revoluciis" drosac. sxvaTa Soris, rodesac gulanTebuli qarTvelebi ruseTis imperias mitingebiT `vamxobdiT", brbod qceulma egzaltirebulma masam, baton akaki baqraZesac ki, stveniT Seawyvetina sityva, rodesac mTavrobis sasaxlis win Sekrebilebs daSlisken mouwoda...

amdenad, droa rusTavelisa da ilias STamomavlebi cota gons movegoT, rogorc batoni akaki ityoda `vasaluri azrovneba davZlioT", `sinaTle gavaRviZoT" da konstituciuri (evoluciuri) gziT davamkvidroT samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo. Torem, Tu `ajanyeba-revoluciebiT" gavagrZeleT svla, federaciis subieqtebad danawevrebuli `mziuri saqarTvelo" srul samarTlebriv wyvdiadSi CaiZireba.

ganvlili e.w. saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebidanac sazogadobam saTanado daskvnebi Tu ar gamoitana da adamianis uflebaTa evropul standartebze ar aiRo orientiri, `xuTjvrian stadiamde" misul qveyanas veRarafriT ganvkurnavT da demokratiuli respublikis nacvlad, marTlac karikaturuli tipisPplutokratiuli tirania SegvrCeba xelSi.

X X X

1991 wlis 9 aprilis damoukideblobis aRdgenis aqti, putin-duginis geopolitikuri gegmebi da rusuli okupaciis dasasrulis dasawyisi

saqarTveloSic da saerTaSoriso politikur-diplomatiur wreebSic dRes aqtualurad iTvleba kiTxva:

- 2008 wlis 7 agvistos amierkavkasiaSi omi saqarTvelom daiwyo Tu ruseTma?

kiTxvis amgvarad dasma ukve cxadyofs, rom dasavluri analitikuri centrebisTvisac ki kavkasiuri konfliqtebis arsi jer kidev naTlad ar aris gaazrebuli. Sesabamisad, dRes aqtualuria, rom civilizebulma msofliomac, dezorientirebulma rusulma sazogadoebamac da saqarTvelos mosaxleobamac gaigos sruli da kvalificirebuli simarTle kavkasiaSi mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb.

safuZveli gvaqvs vTqvaT, rom 1992 wlidan 2008 wlis agvistomde saqarTvelos xelisuflebam Tu samecniero sazogadoebam Zalian cota gaakeTa am mimarTulebiT: metic, nebsiT Tu uneblied, samTavrobo, arasamTavrobo Tu samecniero wreebis nawils arcTu umniSvnelo wvlili aqvs Setanili saqarTvelos sawinaaRmdego, aramecnieruli, dausabuTebeli debulebebis Tu gayalbebuli faqtebis gavrcelebaSi.

bevr problemas qmnis agreTve mimdinare Tu istoriul movlenaTa araadekvaturi terminologiuri Sefaseba (/saxeldeba): magaliTad, oficialurad dRemde arasworadaa Sefasebuli saqarTvelos uaxlesi warsulis faqtebi:

- 1991-93 wlebSi ruseTis mier saqarTvelos xelisuflebis damxoba samoqalaqo omadaa monaTluli:

- 17 wlis manZilze mimdinare ruseT-saqarTvelos omi saxeldebulia e.w. qarTul-afxazur da qarTul-osur eTnokonfliqtebad da sxva.

ruseT saqarTvelos omi ar dawyebula 2008 wlis 7 agvistos; es omi daiwyo 1801 wels, rodesac ruseTis imperia muxanaTurad moeqca saqarTvelos samefo dinastias - bagrationebs da rusuli xiStebiT nawil-nawil daipyro Cveni samSoblo. Sesabamisad, vladimet putini, misi warmomadgeneli gaeroSi b-ni Curkini Tu ruseTis dumis maRali xma - b-ni Jirinovski uperspeqtivod cdiloben, daajeron msoflio, rom 1801 wels saqarTvelo Tavisi nebiT SeuerTda ruseTs.

samarTlebrivad da dokumenturad Zalian iolia dasabuTeba, rom 1801, 1921 da 1992 wlebSi ruseTis imperiam iaraRis ZaliT daamxo saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mosurne kanonieri xelisuflebebi; amaves Seecada 2008 wlis agvistoSic.

prof. tariel futkaraZe

ixileT srulad

X X X

 

axmet zakiri, saTaTreTi

ruseTis imperiis istoriul xlarTebSi

ruseTis oficialur istoriaSi Znelia moZebno iseTi terminebi, rogoricaa "kolonizacia", "sxvisi miwebis mitaceba", "okupacia", "agresia", "kolonialuri omebi". mis istoriografiaSi, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba termini "SeerTeba", "rusi moaxalSeneebis mSvidobiani qmedebebi".

yovlis SemZle mrgval magidebTan, disputebze, miZRvnils ruseTis Camoyalibebaze, ismis xmamaRali mtkiceba imisa, rom "msoflioSi erTaderTi qveyana, romelic ar icnobs kolonias - aris ruseTi". aqedan moyolebuli Ria velikoderJavuli sicrue gaxda qvakuTxedi erovnuli politikisa, romelsac atarebs Tanamedrove ruseTis yvela saxelisuflo Sto.

meore TviTmpyrobluri sicrue ruseTis istoriisa, romelic gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs da elodeba saboloo gamoaSkaravebis saaTs, aris saSineli miTi e.w. "TaTar-mongolTa uReli ruseTze". saSineli iyo is uReli, romlis drosac mimdinareobda im dromde ararsebuli ekonomikuri, kulturuli ayvaveba da politikuri konsolidacia ruseTSi, rodesac is imyofeboda "uRlis" qveS, aswrebda ewarmoebina dampyrobluri omebi, misi samflobeloebis gasafarToeblad, rodesac mimdinareobda gacxovelebuli vaWroba zRvisiqiTa qveynebTan, rodesac Sendeboda marTlmadidebluri taZrebis da monastrebis didebuli kompleqsebi - "oqros rgolis" Sedevrebi, romlebSic aRavlendnen ruseTis sadidebelad locvebs. ruseTi SemarTebiT asrulebda marTlmadideblobis religiur wesebs zarebis "Jolosebri" JReris TanxlebiT.…diax, saSineli uReli, gana simarTle araa? uReli, romlis drosac ganxorcielda calkeuli samTavroebis gaerTianeba, xelisuflebis centralizacia da ruseTis saxelmwifoebriobis aRmoceneba (pirvelad istoriaSi).

eWvgareSea, es bodviTi miTi Seqmnili iyo rusuli TviTmpyrobelobis mier maTi danaSaulobebis, auracxeli borotebis dasafarad, Cadenili ruseTis mier mezobeli ararusi xalxebis winaaRmdeg, maTi koloniuri omebis mimdinareobisas. sicocxlisunarianoba am miTisa rusi xalxis SegnebaSi SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod am sicruis SeuCerebeli reanimaciiT saxelmwifoebriv doneze. es samwuxarod grZeldeba dRemdis.

ruseTis politikuri moRvaweni, cdiloben ra nebismier fasad ugulvelyon erovnuli respublikebis suvereniteti, amtkiceben, rom evraziis ukidegano sivrceze maTi rusebis mier dapyrobis momentidan, TiTqos da ar yofiliyvnen saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebi, ar yofiliyvnen xalxebi - damkvidrebuli tradiciis matarebelni, xetialobdnen iq, „velur velebSi" momTabare, naxevradveluri tomebi, kerpebisa da cecxlis Tayvanismcemelni. gansakuTrebulad Seunelebelia mcdeloba am bususebian-rasistuli Teoriis gamoyeneba volgispireTis, uralis, yazaxeTisa da cimbiris teritoriebTan mimarTebaSi. istoria ki calsaxad adasturebs, rom am regionebSi ruseTis SeWris momentisaTvis arsebobda mravali saxelmwifo: yazanis, astraxanis, yalmuxeTis, cimbiris da sxva saxanoebi. sxvaTaSoris, cimbiris saxano gadaWimuli iyo uralis qedebidan wynari okeanis sanapiroebamde.

ruseTis politikuri moRvaweebi gamudmebiT cdiloben sazogadoebas da dasavleTis xelmZRvanelebs STaagonon azri imperiuli koncefciis „erTiani da ganuyofeli ruseTis" TiTqosda kanonzomierebis Sesaxeb. magram, sapirispiros mowmobs istoriuli faqtebi, movlenebi. sxvas amtkicebs agreTve qronologia, Sedgenili istoriuli monacemebiT, didi da mcire enciklopediebiT. am mokle qronologias sxvagvarad ver uwodeb, rogorc JamTaaRwera ruseTis imperiis - xalxTa sapyrobilis, borotebisa da sicruis imperiis Camoyalibebisa, warmoSobisa, SeuCerebeli cocvisa.

amrigad, srulyofili ilustraciisTvis mkiTxvelis yuradRebas warvudgen amonawerebs am enciklopediidan:

1346 - komis mxaris miwebi aRmoCndnen moskovis samTavros uRlis qveS.

1478 - karelia Sevida ruseTis saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi.

1489 - CrdiloeT udmurtia SeuerTda moskovias.

1552 wels - ganadgurebul iqna yazanis saxano.

„1552 wlis 30 agvistos - ruseTis armiam ganaxorciela yazanis alya". es iyo rusebis merve Tavdasxma yazanze moyolebuli XV saukunis dasasrulidan (1469, 1487, 1506, 1524, 1530, 1545, 1550). brZolebi dasrulda 1552 wlis 2 oqtombers. qalaqSi ganxorcielda saSineli xocva-Jleta, rogorc ki rusulma sardlobam miiRo gadawyvetileba mamakacebis pirwmindad ganadgurebisa. qalaqi saSinel sanaxaobas warmoadgenda: mZvinvarebda xanZari, saxlebi gaZarcvuli iyo, quCebi - savse cxedrebiT, yvelgan sisxlis mdinareebi. aseTi iyo gamarjvebulis saSineli angariSsworeba damarcxebulebze. udidesi qalaqis mamri mosaxleoba mTlianad iqna gawyvetili. mamakacTagan cocxali mxolod erTi gadarCa - iadigar xani. qalebsac aranaklebi sisastikiT gauswordnen, ganurCevlad asakisa, dawyebuli patarebidan, gadaecaT mTvral morodiorebs - 1500000 rusuli armiis jariskacebs.

„dapyrobili yazanis mosaxleobis sastiki gaJleta Seadgens erTerT umZimes furcelTagans ruseTis istoriisas. aseTi kolosaluri adamianuri msxverplis hektakombiT (uazro, winaswarganzraxuli gaJleta adamianTa udidesi raodenobisa) dasrulda yazanelebis winaaRmdeg "qristesmoyvarul meomarTa jvarosnuli laSqroba". es aris ruseTis saxelmwifos pirveli gamosvla teritoriebis dapyrobis gzaze (m. xudiakovi, narkvevebi yazanis saxanos istoriisa. gv. 151-153, yazani. 1990 w.).

yazanis dacemis Semdeg, sxva saxelmwifoebis xalxTa dasaSineblad, winaaRmdegobisaken mimarTuli maTi nebis gasatexad, kolonizaciis Sesamsubuqeblad, rusulma mTavarsardlobam mimarTa sastiki vandalizmis aqts: volgis dinebis mimarTulebiT mdinareSi CauSves yazanis daRupuli damcvelebis cxedarTa mTebiT datvirTuli tivebi.

arielebis, CuvaSebis, mordvelebis da sxva volgispireTis Zireuli xalxebis bedi iyo aranakleb tragikuli. damamcirebeli Zaladobrivi qristianizacia, totaluri sastiki rusifikacia, zeddarTuli koloniuri Zarcva iqca am xalxebis bediswerad saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi, komunisturi ukanonobis periodis CaTvliT.

yazanis dacemam Seqmna pirobebi cimbiris farTomaStabiani kolonizaciisa. ase daiwyo saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi rusTa svla alaskamde, aRmosavleTamde, Tanamedrove sazRvrebamde samxreTiTa da dasavleTiT. TavianT gzaze rusebi "cecxliTa da maxviliT" anadgurebdnen mTels saxelmwifoebs, xalxebs, TavianTi ZarZva glejis dagvirgvinebiTa da kacobriobis istoriaSi arnaxuli sisxliani TavxedobiT xalxebis Zaladobrivi gaqristianebiT, daumorCilebelTa dedawulianad ganadgurebis saSiSroebiT.

ruseTis jarebis sastiki danaSaulebebi iseTi SemaZrwunebeli da imdenad uCveulo iyo SuasaukuneebisTvis, rom romis papi iZulebuli gaxda miemarTa rusTa xelmwifisTvis epistoleTi, qristeanTaTvis amdeni uazro, sastiki borotmoqmedebis Cadenis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb. magram am mimarTvas mdgomareoba ar Seucvlia.

1556 weli - "astraxanis saxano advilad iqna dapyrobili da mierTebuli ruseTis saxelmwifos" (mse t. I gv. 609).

1557 weli - baSkiruli tomebi SeZrwunebulebi arian yazanis tragikuli bediT, „nebayoflobiTi miReba" rusuli qveSemrdomobisa, ufro ki „gasinjes ra es qveSevrdomoba, amxedrdnen rus dampyrobelTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. baSkirTa mZlavri erovnul-gamanTavisuflebeli moZraoba aswleulebis manZilze istoriaSi Sevida, rogorc „baSkiruli ajanyebebi" (dse t. 111. gv. 60).

1557 weli - udmurteTi sruliad iqna mierTebuli rusul saxelmwifosTan, adiRea dapyrobil iqna ruseTis jarebis mier.

1558 weli - „rusuli jarebis Setevam cimbiris saxano miiyvana ganadgurebamde" (mse t. 111 gv. 455).

1630 weli - „30-40-ian wlebSi daiwyo rusuli jarebis gaWra baikalispireTSi, buriatiis mierTeba dasrulda 1630 wels, romelic gaformda nerCinskis molaparakebiT 1689 wels" (dse t. I u, gv. 146). iakutia dakavebulia rusuli jarebis mier (dse t. 30, gv. 49).

1654 weli - pereiaslavis radis mier ukrainis rusuli saxelmwifos wiaRSi „nebayoflobiT Sesvlis Sesaxeb" gamocxadeba. ruseT-poloneTis 1654-1667 omis Sedegad anduris morigebis mixedviT 1667 wels ukrainis marcxena sanapiro da kievi mimdebare teritoriebiT miemagra rusul taxts.

1721 weli - estoneTi, agreTve viZeme, Tanaxmad niStadtis „mSvidobiani" molaparakebiT, miuerTdnen ruseTs, xolo reCpospolitis gayofis Semdeg mas CamoSorda agreTve latviis teritoriis narCenebi.

Zvirad daujda baltiispirel xalxebs petre I mier gaWrili „fanjara evropaSi", 20 welze meti xani mimdinareobda CrdiloeTis dampyrobluri omi ruseTis zRvaze gasvlisaTvis. da es fanjara mravalgzis gaiwminda baltiispirelebis sisxliTa da cremlebiT.

1731 weli - yazaxeTis ukidegano stepebSi gamoCndnen rusuli jarebi da daiwyo yazaxi xalxis „nebayoflobiTi Sesvla" rusul imperiaSi. XVIII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi dasrulda yazaxuri miwebis dapyroba rusebis mier. rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wiaRSi mtkiced muSavdeboda gegma yazaxi xalxis totaluri ZalmomreobiTi monaTvlisa, ruseTis Semdgomi axali regionis - yviTeli ruseTisa. da mxolod pirveli imperialisturi omis dawyebam uSvela yazax xalxs moralur-RirsebiTi, sulieri genocidisagan. CaiSala rusuli TviTmpyrobelobis am mxecuri miznebis ganxorcieleba.

1742 weli - yarayalpayeTi moeqca proteqtoratis qveS, 1873 wels ki Sevida ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi.

1756 weli - mTiani altai, "Tavisi xalxis nebis dakmakofilebiT" Sevida ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi.

1771 weli - yalmuxeTis saxanom Sewyvita arseboba "ruseTis astraxanis guberniis CaylapviT".

1772 weli - reC pospolitis samad gayofis Sedegad belorusuli miwebi miekuTvna ruseTs.

1774 weli - oseTi, didi da mcire yabardo dapyrobilia rusuli jarebiT.

1783 weli - dapyrobil iqna yirimi, - saqarTvelo aRmoCnda ruseTis proteqtoratis qveS.

1793 weli - iasis xelSekrulebiT reCpospolitis dayofis Semdeg moldovas marcxena sanapiro miuerTda ruseTs.

1795 weli - litvis didi nawili dapyrobilia ruseTis jarebis mier.

1801 weli - aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo da dasavleT saqarTvelos didi nawili Sevidnen ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi (dse t. X S. gv. 40) - daiwyo rusuli jarebis mier aRmosavleT somxeTis dapyroba.

1805 weli - yarabaxis saxano miuerTda ruseTs.

1810 weli - inguSeTi dapyrobil iqna rusebis mier.

1812 weli - buqarestis xelSekrulebis Sedegad besarabia miuerTda ruseTs.

1813 weli - kavkasiis damoukidebeli xalxebis winaaRmdeg ruseTis kolonialuri omebis warmoebisas gulistanis xelSekrulebis Semdeg ruseTs miuerTdnen baqos, ganjis, yubanis, Sirvanis tebrizis, daRestnis da mTeli rigi sxva saxanoebi. rusulma TviTmyrobelobam xiStebiT moitana usamarTloba da siRatake, cremlisa da sisxlis zRva. ekonomikuri Zarcva, politikuri da sasuliero Cagvra, saukunovani wesebis, tradiciebis abuCad agdeba aRmosavleTis musulmanuri xalxebisa. ruseTis imperiis arcerT regions ar uwvnevia Tavis Tavze kolonialuri politikis iseTi savalalo Sedegebi, rogorc imier kavkasiam da CrdiloeT kavkasiam. moskovis bilwi politikis - "dayavi da ibatones"- tragikuli Sedegebi zvaviviT izrdeba meore kavkasiuri omisTvis realuri winapirobebis SeqmniT. sad aris rusi politikosebis pirferobis, orpirobis, sibilwis zRvari? erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis gauaresebis mizniT ararus xalxebSi eTnosTa Soris Sejaxebis provocirebiT, isini cali xeliT gascemen meomar mxareebze iaraRs, meore xeliT xels aweren Suamavlisa da mSvidobismyofelis niRabs amofarebulni.

1815 weli - litva mTlianad iqna dapyrobili ruseTis mier.

1829 weli - rusuli jarebi muxanaTurad daesxnen Tavs CeCneTis miwas da aulebs. sastiki, uTanasworo, sisxlismRvreli brZolebis Semdeg 1859 wels CeCneTi sruliad iqna dapyrobili ruseTis mier. amayi, Tavisuflebismoyvare CeCeni xalxi Tavisi legendaruli imam Samilis mwvane droSis qveS uwevda medgar winaaRmdegobas ruseTis imperiis uzarmazar Zalas ocdaaT welze met xans. imam Samili iqna datyvevebuli, magram ara gatexili. is gasaxlebul iqna ruseTis TviTmpyrobelobis mier da gardaicvala misi uwmindesi samSoblosagan Sors. mas Semdeg gaiara mravalma welma, magram axsovT ra Samilis anderZi, CeCneTi agrZelebs ruseTis "federaciis" imperiis kolonialuri uRlisagan ganTavisuflebisTvis brZolas.

1863 weli - CrdiloeT yirgizeTi "Sevida" ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi.

1864 weli - dasrulda dasavleT saqarTvelos dapyroba.

1868 weli - buxaris saxano moeqca ruseTis proteqtoratis qveS.

1873 weli - xivis saxano dapyrobil iqna rusuli jarebis mier.

1875 weli - kokandis saxano miuerTda ruseTs.

1876 weli - samxreTi yirgizeTi miuerTda CrdiloeTs, erTianad ki ruseTs.

1878 weli - aWara dapyrobil iqna ruseTis mier.

1885 weli - sabolood dasrulda TurqmeneTis mitaceba.

1919 weli - tuvis mxare moeqca ruseTis proteqtoratis qveS. 30 wlis Semdeg ki tuvis saxalxo respublika "mSormelTa TxovniT" Sevida ssrk-s SemadgenlobaSi.

1940 weli - "fineTis" samarcxvino omis Semdeg, gaCaRebuli ruseTis mier, TiTqosda leningradis usafrTxoebis mizniT, fineTis qalaqi vippuri (viborgi) da fineTis teritoriis mniSvnelovani nawili miuerTda rsfsr-s. sabWoTa armiis mier okupirebuli iqnen latvia, litva da estoneTi hitlerul germaniasTan samarcxvino garigebis Sedegad. faSisturi germaniisa da ssrk-s SeTqmulebis Sedegad dasavleT ukraina da dasavleT belorusia miuerTdnen ruseTs. hitleris morigi mowyaleba kremlisaTvis - besarabia da bukovina "ganTavisuflebulia" wiTeli armiis mier.

1945 weli - aRmosavleT prusiis nawili qalaq keningsbergiT "Sevidnen" rsfsr-s SemadgelobaSi. samxreTi saxalini da ZirZveli iaponuri miwebi - kuriliis kunZulebi okupirebul iqnen ruseTis mier.

1979-1989 wlebi - mSvidobianma, megobruli avRaneTma, megobrobisa da TanamSromlobis xelSekrulebiT dakavSirebulma ruseTTan, ganicada moskovis moRalaturi agresia. aTwlovani araadamianuri omis msvlelobis Sedegad ruseTis mTavarsardlobis mier "gadamwvari miwis" taqtikis gamoyenebiT moklul iqna am qveynis milionze meti moqalaqe. mravali qalaqi da yiSlayi nangrevebad iqca. avRanuri omi - erTerTi samarcxvino furcelia Tanamderove ruseTis istoriaSi.

amgvarad, SeuCerebeli kolonialuri, sxvisi miwebis dampyrobluri omebis Sedegad iqmneboda ruseTis imperia.

magram, amave dros Seiqmna miTi "aTaswlovani ruseTisa - mSvelelisa, mSvidobismyofelisa, xalxTa da erTa dedisa". imperiuli miTi xalxTa mosatyueblad da dafaruli oTxaswlovani rusuli agresiisa, mTeli rigi saxelmwifoebisa da xalxebis damonebisa da Zarcvisa. da ra miiRes xalxebma, "aTaswlovani ruseTis - gadamrCenelisagan" damonebulebma? is, rom yvela ararusi xalxi, ukrainelebisa da belorusebis CaTvliT, mividnen sulieri gardacvalebis saSiS xazTan, mSobliuri enis, erovnuli kulturis, saukunovani wesebisa da tradiciebis dakargviT, TavianTi saxelmwifoebriobis dakargviT. amas garda, bevri ararusi xalxi gandevnil iqnen TavianTi ZirZveli miwidan, ganicades deportacia, romelsac Tan axlda maTi udidesi nawilis fizikuri ganadgureba.

1940 wlis baltiispireTis xalxebis da dasavleT ukrainisa da dasavleT belorusiis "ganTavisuflebuli" olqebis SerCeviTi deportacia, romelic mzardi maStabebiT ganmeorda 1945 wels, magram amjerad jojoxeTuri wamebis meSveobiT "arqipelag gulagis" sainflatacio banakebSi.

1941 weli - dedawuliani deportacia volgispireli germanelebisa maTi saxelmwifoebriobis likvidaciiT, romelic dremde ar aRdgenila. aseTive tragedia ganicada Tavisuflebismoyvare yalmuxeTis xalxma.

1942 weli - Seiqmna dokumenti, sakavSiro komunisturi partiis (bol.) ck-s politbiuros mier ganxiluli da miRebuli "yazaneli TaTrebis deportaciis da maTi saxelmwifoebriobis likvidaciis Sesaxeb" stalingradis dacemis SemTxvevaSi da frontis gadatana volgis iqiT, mis marcxena sanapiroze. stalingradTan faSisturi germaniis ganadgurebiT, saTaTreTSi uzarmazari samxedro mrewvelobis koncentraciiT, sabWoTa armiis sursaTis, samosiT, sabrZolo maragiT, teqnikis ukeTesi momagrgebis SesaZleblobebiT aiZula moskovi uari eTqva mis morig genocidze.

1944 weli - kavkasiis musulmani xalxebis dedawuliani deportacia, darbevebis, Zarcvis, daxvretebis, adamianTa dawvis TanxlebiT, romlebic cdilobdnen Tavi daeRwiaT deportaciisagan, - totaluri deportacia yirimeli TaTrebisa, samamulo omis monawileTa CaTvliT, mTeli xalxis faSist okupantebTan TanamSromlobis braldebis TanxlebiT. am uprecendento angariSworebis Sedegad yirimeli TaTrebi Seiqmnen sitoriaSi arnaxuli usastikesi genocidis msxverplni. deportirebuli TaTrebis daaxloebiT naxevari daiRupa sicivisa da SimSilisagan eSelonebis msvlelobis dros, romlebic Sedgenili iyo cxovelTa vagonebiT, sruliad daxSulni, saWmel-sasmelis gareSe. am araadamianurobam SesZra msoflio. dRemde ar aris yirimel TaTarTa saxelmwifoebrioba aRdgenili, maT akrZaluli aqvT zRvispireTSi, qalaqebSi cxovreba, saidanac isini gandevnil iqnen. maT asaxleben cud, meurneobisaTvis gamousadegar stepebis regionebis miwebze.

erovnuli sakiTxebis Sesaxeb datrialebul polemikaSi, ruseTis xalxebis araTanabarmniSvnelovani bedis Sesaxeb kamaTisas arcTu iSviaTad SeiZleba gavigonoT, rom, ase vTqvaT, agreTve rusi xalxic dazaralda. amis dros Cveulebrivad eyrdnobian ekonomikur siduxWires, 30-iani wlebis sayovelTao represiebs, iviwyeben, rac sayovelTao ubedureba iyo gamonaklisis gareSe. magram rusi xalxi arasodes ganicdida gamudmebul, damamcirebel sulier diskriminaciul Cagvras, romlis Sedegadac ararus xalxebisTvis mSobliuri ena sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis, saxelmwifo saqmiswaroebis yvela donidan da ekonomikuri saqmianobis sferodan, xalxTa Soris urTierTobebidan. mravalsaukunovani diskriminaciis Sedegad ararusi xalxebis mSobliuri ena gadaiqva samzareulo-sabazro Jargonad sruli gadaSenebis moaxloebuli perspeqtiviT. ararusi xalxis warmomadgenlebisTvis daketili iyo umaRlesi ganaTlebis misasvleli metnaklebad prestiJuli profesiebisa rusuli enis kargi codnis gareSe. ricxvi erovnuli skolebisa mkacrad iyo Semcirebuli, qalaqebSi ki isini likvidirebuli iyo "mSromeli mSoblebis TxovniT". mkacrad iyo SezRuduli erovnuli enebis gamoyeneba sainformacio saSualebebSi, rogorc centralur aseve regionalurSi. ararusi xalxebisTvis ar iyo sabavSvo dawesebulebebi (bavSvTa bagebi da baRebi) mSobliur enaze. amas garda am dawesebulebebis aRmzrdelebi (Cveulebriv rusebi), mtkiced moiTxovdnen, rom bavSvebTan saxlSi ar esaubraT mSobliur enaze, TiTqosda xeli ar SeeSalaT maTTvis rusuli enis aTvisebaSi. musulman xalxebs araerTxel, Zalismierad Seucvales damwerloba da sabolood Tavs moaxvies kirilica, maTi fonetikisTvis, enobrivi artikulaciisTvis gamousadegari, maTi enebis gamamrudebeli da damamsxvreveli dRevandel dRemde. saukunovani Cveulebebi da tradiciebi miCneuli iyo raRac reaqciulad, momavali Taobebis arzrdisaTvis miuReblad, da samarTlebrivi dasjis muqariT ikrZaleboda. sistematiurad maxinjdeboda ararusi xalxebis istoria, mtkicdeboda, rom maTi namdvili istoria saTaves iRebda ruseTTan SeerTebis momentidan. oficialuri tribunebidan sazeimod cxaddeboda, rom "rac ufro male alaparakdeba yvela xalxi rusul enaze, miT ufro male aSendeboda naTeli momavali".

xalxebis nebismieri mciredi gamovlineba erovnuli TviTSegnebisa umowyalod cxaddeboda nacionalizmad, saxelmwifoebriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul politikur danaSaulad. uceremoniod, yovelgvari sababiT, da sababis gareSec, ignorirebuli, Seuracxyofili iyo Rirseba ararusi xalxisa, upiratesoba eniWeboda yovelgvar rusuls. amis Sedegad midiodnen absurdebamde, ganadidebdnen "rusul suls", "rusul simamaces", "aqebdnen "rusul zamTars", "rusul aryis xes", "rusul volgas", raTa saukunod ganemtkicebinaT yovelgvari rusulis prioriteti.

nebiT Tu uneblied, faqtiurad saxelmwifoebriv doneze, kultivirebuli iyo yovelive ararusulisadmi Seurigebloba. amis Sesaxeb sruliad damajereblad mowmobs CrdiloeTis, cimbiris, Soreuli aRmosavleTis ZirZveli mosaxleobis bedi, romlebic aRmoCndnen sikvdilis zrvaris winaSe "civilizaciis nayofis" Sedegad, romelic maTSi "ufrosma Zmam" Seitana sacxovrebeli garemos msxvreviT - ekonomikuri agresiiT "saukunis mSeneblobaTa", koloniuri Zarcvis, maTi tradiciebis, Cveulebebis msxvrevis, arasrulfasovani, aratradiciuli kvebis, daundobeli eqspluataciis, maTi Sromis arasavaldebulo Secvlis, daavadebebis: Wleqis, avitaminozis, veneriuli daavadebebis (adre am mxareebisTvis ucnobi), profesiuli daavadebebis, alkoholizmis Sedegad.

magram riTi avxsnaT "saxelmwifoebrivi da sayofacxovrebo antisemitizmis istoriuli xaverdovani "Taiguli", romelic Seiqmna mizezad Tavisi masStabebiT arnaxuli ebrauli emigraciisa ruseTidan? gana ar darCeba es saukunod msoflio istoriaSi rusi eris sircxvilad?

moskovuri kremlis scenaris mixedviT xelovnurad Seqmnili saskvdilo SimSiloba da genocidi, romelmac 30-ian wlebSi mravaltanjuli ukraina moicva, romelmac Sromismoyvare puris momyvani, mSromeli inteligentis - ukrainis TavisuflebisaTvis dacemuli mebrZolebis - milionobiT sicocxle waritana Tan?

gana SeiZleba gamarTldes masiuri daxvretebi poloneli xalxis elitis - oficerTa korpusis, ruseTSi muxanaTurad ganadgurebulebisa?

an riTi aixsneba 1957 wels Celiabinskis olqSi sawarmo maiakSi atomuri afeTqebis Semdeg dazaralebuli soflebis macxovrebelTa SerCeviTi gadasaxleba-evakuacia? maSin, rodesac saTaTreTisa da baSkireTis soflebis macxovreblebi TavianT soflebSi datoves yovelgvari daxmarebis gareSe. rusebiT dasaxlebuli soflebi dauyovnebliv iqnen evakuirebulni. maTi soflebi moaswora buldozerma. TaTrul da baSkirul soflebSi dRemdis katastrofulad maRalia radiaciuli foni, bevrad meti, vidre Cernobilis aes-is regionebSi. SemTxveviT ar iRupebian am soflebis mcxovreblebi armiRweuli TavianTi cxovrebis ormoc wels. amaze dardianad metyveleben maTi saflavis mdumare qvebi. rus xalxs ar ganucdia Tavisi eris saSineli inteleqtualuri sterilizacia, rogoric es sxva xalxebSi iyo, romelTa inteligencia meTodurad da mizanmimarTulad dedawulianad iqna braldebuli dausabuTebel nacionalizmSi.

rus xalxs arasodes rgebia xvedrad deportaciis saSinelebebi. misTvis ar waurTmeviaT sakuTari saxelmwifoebrioba, mas arasdros axvevdnen Tavs sxvis kulturas, enas da religias.

amave dros rusuli TviTmpyrobeloba ruseTis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis xelebiT mudmivad awarmoebda ZalmomreobiT qristianizacias - sxvadasxva aRmsareblobebis xalxTa naTlobas. amasTan, damatebiT maTi kulturuli nagebobebis, taZrebis, sasaflaoebis barbarosuli ganadgurebiT, saflavis qvebis qristianuli eklesiebis samSeneblo masalad gamoyenebiT.… sad, msoflios romel saxelmwifoSi SexvdebiT aseT vandalizms? ararusi xalxis religiuri moRvaweni ganicdidnen sastik represiebs da faqtiurad sruliad iqnen ganadgurebulni. ai is, qristianuli gulmowyaleba, Semwynarebloba.

yazanis saxanos dacemis Semdeg TaTari xalxis religiuri moRvaweebi ganicdidnen saSinel devnas, nadgurdeboda meCeTebi. ise, rogorc imperatrica elizaveta petres asulis 1742 wlis 19 noembris brZanebiT, guberniaSi umalve iqna dangreuli 500 meCeTze meti. es boroteba ganxorcielda misi gamefebis meore wels da iyo gagrZeleba misi mamis, petre I politikisa ararus xalxTan mimarTebaSi. kerZod, mas ekuTvnis sityvebi, warmoTqmuli mis mier yazanSi sparseTis laSqrobis samzadisisas, rom "yofili yazanis saxanos miwebi, sadac jer kidev saxloben TaTrebi, aris avTvisebiani simsivne ruseTis imperiis sxeulze! gana es ganwyobilebebi dResac ar danavardoben moskovis xelisuflebisa da TeTri saxlis derefnebSi?

yvela zemoTCamonaTvali - arasruli siaa „xalxTa megobrobis" tragikuli Sedegebisa ruseTis imperiis cixeTa da banakTa labirinTebSi, romelic slavianuri triumviratis mier 1991 wels gamocxadebul iqna „damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobad".

X X X

xalxma aCvena vin aris misTvis Zvirfasi

 

britanuli proeqti “gamoCenili Tanamemamuleebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos televiziaze.

isa qaZoevis martirologia

saba iberi, Tbilisi, CeCenpresisTvis 01.04.09

gaiara TxuTmetma welma gamoCenili qarTveli saxelmwifo moRvawis, saqarTvelos pirveli prezidentis zviad gamsaxurdias gardacvalebidan.

im tragikul dReebSi kavkasiis yvela Tavisuflebismoyvare adamianma es aunaazRaurebeli danakargi mwuxarebiT aRiqva, magram namdvilad gulisSemZvreli samZimari 1994 wlis ianvarSi movida inguSeTidan - cnobilma vainaxma mweralma, samarTaldamcvelma isa qaZoevma dawera martirologia - “sityva megobarze”, romelic saqarTveloSi dResac xelidan xelSi gadadis. masSi ZiriTadad naTqvamia:

“zviad gamsaxurdias sikvdiliT mTavrdeba disidenturi sufTa, romantikuli etapi kavkasiis Cagrul xalxTa Tavisuflebis moZraobisa.… zviadi maradisobaSi gadavida, Tanamemamuleebs dautova ra Tavisi moZRvreba - zviadizmi - saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sruli uflebebis aRdgenisaTvis, qedmouxreli brZolis moZRvreba, moZRvreba agebuli oTx dedaboZze:

1. qarTveli xalxis dabruneba RmerTTan;

2. dabruneba winaparTa tradiciebze;

3. politikurad da ekonomiurad Zlieri damoukidebeli saxelmwifos aRdgena;

4. - kavkasiel xalxTa Zmoba. saerTo kavkasiuri saxlis Seqmna kavkasiis yvela xalxisaTvis.

ai is doqtrina, romelic gaunaTebs gzas momaval patriotebs saqarTvelos TavisuflebisaTvis, sruliad kavkasiis TavisuflebisaTvis.. RmerTi iyos maTi Semwe! dae, maTi xvedri iyos warmatebuli da sabedniero vidre Cvenia!

ara! zviad gamsaxurdias ideaze jvris dasma ar gamouvaT. zviadi daiRupa fizikurad, idea zviadisa ki icocxlebs“.

 

yovelives miRweul gavlenian xelisufalT da pativdebul didebulT klerikalTagan ucbad "gaaxsendaT", rom miuRebelia aseTi pativsacemi pirovnebebis numeracia rigis mixedviT da amasTanave uxerxulia erT siaSi wmindanTa da saeroTa moqceva, Tumca konkursis pirobebi adreve iyo SeTanxmebuli amaTTanac da sxvebTanac. maS ra moxda?

ai rac moxda: gamoirkva, rom pirvel or adgilze erTmaneTs misdevden mefe daviT aRmaSenebeli da prezidenti zviad gamsaxurdia, sxva danarCenisagan didi daSorebiT. aRmoCnda, rom idea zviad gamsaxurdiasi jer kidev cocxalia? ramdenadac ideebi (da idealebi, Tu gnebavT) gamsaxurdiasi, deklaraciuli gancxadebebis gamonaklisiT, dRes arc maT Soris da arc sxvaTa Soris modaSi ar aris. momxdari arc damfuZneblebis gegmaSi iyo, romlebsac ar ZaluZdaT warmoedginaT garemoebis amgvari warmarTva. disident-prezidentisadmi saxalxo pativgebis gamo „demokratiuli“ sazogadoebis winaSe arasasurveli saxiT rom ar warmdgariyvnen, isini ukve mzad iyvnen telegadacemis SeCerebisaTvis, magram SeeSindaT ra saxalxo SfoTisa, wavidnen kompromisze - aRedginaT proeqti da 50 kandidatis SerCevis Semdeg, „aTeulis“ gamovlenisas CamoeSorebinaT arasasurveli kandidati. gadawyvites nominantebis reitingisaTvis daematebinaT reitingi warmdgenebisa da avtoritetuli pirovnebebisa. da ise gamovida, rom Tanamedrove msaxiobma gadauswro Tamar mefes, zviad gamsaxurdia ki rogorc iyo pirvel rigebSi iseve darCa (amasTan, xmebis daTvla xelaxla warimarTa da adrindeli xmebi nominants ar mieTvala). ver uSvelaT imanac, rom zviad gamsaxurdias individualuri wardgineba daniSnes bolo turSi, raTa mayurebelTa emociur ganwyobilebas xmaTa gadamwyveti raodenoba ar daematebina. magram "pirveli sameuli" bolo turamde bevrad adre gaxda miuRweveli da organizatorebma gadawyvites ukandaxeva, daetovebinaT yvela nominantisaTvis maT mierve mopovebuli reitingebi. da axla, proeqtis dasrulebis win (darCa mxolod erTi turi, proeqti dasruldeba 3 aprils) ukve naTlad warmoCindeba suraTi, romlis Secvlac SesaZlebelia mxolod cenzuris uxeSi CareviT. da ai vin xvdeba „did aTeulSi“ da rogori reitingiT (2009 wlis 29 martis 01 saaTis reitingi):

1. daviT aRmaSenebeli - 16 226

2. ilia WavWavaZe - 14 962

3. zviad gamsaxurdia - 13 287

4. vaJa-fSavela - 11 141

5. Tamar mefe - 10 555

6. SoTa rusTaveli - 9 480

7. eqvTime TayaiSvili - 8 977

8. giorgi brwyinvale - 8 005

9. iakob gogebaSvili - 7 676

10. ucnobi gmirebi - 7 669

sxvaoba siebs Soris proeqtis Sewyvetamde da mas Semdeg mxolod me-9 da me-10 adgilebSia. Sewyvetamde iq figurirebdnen gabriel beri (axla me-14 adgili) da ivane javaxiSvili (axla me-11 adgili), awindelSi ki iakob gogebaSvili da ucnobi gmirebi.

es sia xom TavisTavad, masSi zviad gamsaxurdias arCaTvlis miuxedavad, ver gaaxarebs verc prokremlistur da verc prodasavlur Zalebs. yvela pirovneba saqarTvelos istoriis gamoCenili moRvawea, pativi da Rirsebaa, imyofeba erovnuli Tavisuflebis sadarajoze. iq ar arian kondetiorebi da globalistebi.

modiT gavecnoT axlos: sami mefe - XII saukuneSi didi daviTi - Semqmneli didi da gavleniani saxelmwifosi da Seudarebeli Tamar mefe - saqarTvelos Zlierebis mwvervali, XIV saukuneSi giorgi brwyinvale - ukanaskneli erTiani samefos gvirgvinosTagan, monRolTa urdoebis gamreki; ilia WavWavaZe - poeti da sazogado moRvawe, saqarTvelos ugvirgvino mefe - rusuli mmarTvelobis muxanaT XIX saukuneSi saqarTvelos TviTmyofadobisa da erovnebis mcnebis gadamrCeni; zviad gamsaxurdia - saqarTvelosTvis aRTqmuli Tavisuflebis dambrunebeli; SoTa rusTaveli da vaJa fSavela (XII da XIX ss.) xarki msoflio kulturisaTvis - didi moazrovneni da Semoqmedni; eqvTime TayaiSvili - dasavleTSi bolSevikebisagan ganridebuli saqarTvelos istoriuli saganZuris Tvalis CiniviT modaraje; iakob gogebaSvili - XIX saukuneSi qristianobamdeli, 23 saukunovani anbanis safuZvelze bavSvebisaTvis „deda enis“ Semqmneli da momavali Taobis totaluri garusebisagan gadamrCeni da bolos, ucnobi qarTvelebi, sakuTar samSoblosaTvis sisocxlis Semwirvelni saukuneTa manZilze.…

niSandoblivia, rom or sias Soris mxolod erTi arsebiTi sxvaobaa - pirvelSi me-5 adgilze imyofeboda gabriel beri (meoreSi me-14 adgilze gadanacvlebuli - 6 520) - agreTve proeqtis kinaRam CaSlis erTerTi braleuli. religiuri qvelmoqmedeba, gamocxadebani da saswaulTmoqmedebani, rac mas miewereboda, rogorc RvTis boZeba, sakvirveli ar aris berisaTvis. Tanamemamuleebi mas sicocxleSive miagebdnen pativs saero gmirobisaTvis - 1965 wels sapirvelmaiso demonstraciaze man daswva leninis uzarmazari portreti, ris gamoc ergo cixe da fsiqiatriuli klinikebi. 90-ian wlebSi ki gamodioda saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis. naTelmxilvelis senakidan risxvas atexda renegat SevardnaZes da mTel mis samwysos amcnobda - „zviad gamsaxurdias mtrebi saqarTvelos mtrebi arian“. da dRemde Serisxulia rogorc xelisufalTagan, aseve warCinebul klerikalTa umetesi nawilis mier.

pirvel siaSi myofi ivane javaxiSvili (6 802) ki warsulis umaRlesi saswavleblebis - fazisis (I s.), iyalTosa da gelaTis akademiebis (XII s.) saZirkvlebze mdgomi - meoce saukunis dasawyisSi, ruseTisagan sami wliT ganTavisuflebuli saqarTvelos, Tbilisis universitetis damaarsebeli.

iqve, me-12 adgilze imyofeba merab kostava - zviad gamsaxurdias Tanamoazre, saqarTvelos TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli (6 8019);

me-13 adgilzea konstantine gamsaxurdia - zviad gamsaxurdias mama (6 765), qarTuli literaturis klasikosi, sityviTa da kalmiT komunistur tiraniasTan mebrZoli, romelmac Tavis Zes anderZad dautova rusuli uRlisagan saqarTvelos ganTavisufleba.

 

mTlianobaSi 50-ianelTa siaSi aran:

mefeni: farnavazi - Cvens eramde III saukuneSi qarTuli saxelmwifos Semqmneli da qarTuli damwerlobis SemomRebi, vaxtangi - V. saukuneSi saqarTvelos axali dedaqalaqis - Tbilisis damaarsebeli da qarTul eklesiisTvis avtokefaliis mboZebeli;

dimitri Tavdadebuli - sakuTari Tavis msxverplad Semwirveli, XIII saukuneSi mtrebis Zalmomreobisagan Tavisi xalxis gadamrCeneli;

wmindanebi: aToneli berebi, patriarqi ambrosi - bolSevikur jurRmulebSi nawamebi, ruseT-saqarTvelos omSi afxazeTis axalmowame - mama andria;

didi mxedarTmTavrebi: giorgi sakaZe - sakuTari xalxis sparselebis genocidisagan mxsneli, giorgi mazniaSvili - generali, 1918-1921 wlebSi saqarTvelos damoukideblobis damcveli; qaquca ColoyaSvili - saqarTvelos aneqsiis Semdeg bolSevikebis winaaRmdeg oTxwliani Seuwyveteli brZolis warmmarTveli.

- Tu maT mkvdreTiT aRvadgenT, rogor fiqrobT, pativcemulo mkiTxvelebo, rogori damokidebuleba eqnebodaT zemoT moyvanili gavleniani pirovnebebis eWvisa da SfoTis mimarT? raTqma unda isini ar SeewinaaRmdegebodnen erT siaSi wmindanTa da saeroTa yofnas, uflis xmisa da eris xmis SemaerTebels, xolo pirveli aTeulis nominantebis gamo yvelani erTxmad taSs daukravda qarTvel xalxs, romelmac dRevandeli sabrZolo ganwyobileba uCvena - maS sxvagvarad rogor gvibrZanebT mis Sefasebas, rom pirvel sam adgilze qarTvelebma airCies yvelaze namdvili prokavkasiuri moRvaweni:

1. mefe daviTi, romlis ZalisxmeviTac realurad iqna miTweuli mTeli kavkasieli xalxebis erToba;

2. ilia WavWavaZe, romelic umReroda im dros, ros „xalxi azvirTda, xalxi aRsdga xalxi moqmedebs, kavkasis zRvidam Sav zRvamdina erT fiqrsa hfiqrobs, da eg fiqria mTel kavkasis Tavisufleba!“

3. zviad gamsaxurdia, romelmac joxar dudaevTan erTad saZirkveli Caugo „kavkasiur saxls“!

es ki niSnavs, rom rac ar unda sTqvas oficiozma, opoziciam an klerikalebis nomenklaturulma nawilma, rogor esengeSi da natoSic ar unda Semalon, qarTveli xalxi rogorc iRwvoda Tavisuflebisa da erTiani kavkasiisTvis, iseve iRwvis da saxeldobr, am ideas ukavSirebs Tavis imedebs momavlisas!

axla isev mivubrundeT isa qaZoevis martirologias. 1994 wels, mimarTa ra qarTvel xalxs, romlis saTaveSic aRmoCnda kremlis satrapi SevardnaZe, TanamgrZnoblur sityvebs asrulebs sazriani kiTxvebiT:

„nuTu qarTvelma xalxma gadamwyveti saqmisas wmindani Cekistze gacvala? miWirs me, tiraniasTan mebrZols, amis dajereba."

STamomavalni ikiTxaven: rogor SeiZleboda es momxdariyo?

ratom ver gaufrTxildnen qarTvelebi RmerTisgan boZebul genias? amaze pasuxi ar advilia. zviadma da misma Tanamoazreebma moulodneli dartymiT, mTeli qarTveli xalxis arnaxuli wyromiT, miwis pirisagan aRgaves saqarTveloSi komunisturi reJimi. daimsxvra saTave, nawilebad daiSala. uRmerToni, komunistebi, fulis mafia, korumpirebuli Cinovnikoba, yoveli juris qurdebi, sukelebi, damsmenebi da warmonaqmni, Tavisi Tavis erovnul inteligenciad momnaTlavni, da ufrore gawvrTnilebi umecrobis sxvadasxva msubuq xelobaSi. yvela es Zala totalur reJims Seezilnen da cxovrobdnen RiRiniT qveynis dovlaTis da ubralo xalxis oflis xarjze. daixies ra ukan am Zalebma, gadajgufnden da wamovidnen Setevaze. da ipovnes maTTvis Rirseuli "beladi", TavianTi saxis da TavianTi msgavsi.

samwuxarod, qarTuli sazogadoebis zemoT moxseniebuli fenebi jer kidev ver gardaiqmnen - isini sakmaod wonian nawils Seadgenen oficiozisas da e. w. opoziciisas. dRes raRac xarisxSi situacia meordeba - poetic ki, Cveni Tanamedrove, romelmac gausaZlis samocdaaTian wlebSi dawera Tavisufali sulis leqsi sami didebuli svetis - saqarTvelos mxsnelebis daviT aRmaSeneblis, ilia WavWavaZisa da mesame ucnobis Sesaxeb, romelic unda moevlina ufals xalxis gadasarCenad - rodesac RmerTma moavlina is zviad gamsaxurdias saxiT, am poetma is mainc ver amoicno, da rogorc sxva „damsmeni warmonaqmnebi“ aRmoCnda maRalCinosani Cekistis mosamsaxureTa rigebSi. aw ra unda vTqvaT ubralo mokvdavTa Sesaxeb, romelTganac yvelas ar unda Rirsebis mixedviT Seafasos Tavisi Tanamedrove Tamamemamuleebi! cnobilia, rom amgvar axlomxedvelTagan umeteswilad izrdeba yoveli drois nomenklatura, amitom qarTveli xalxi dRes did imedebs ar moelis arc oficialuri xelisuflebisagan, arc marionetuli opoziciisagan da arc klerikalTa umravlesobisagan.

magram sCans, TviT aris imediani. am xalxs - britanuli proeqtis miRebuli Sedegebis safuZvelze Tamamad SeuZlia erwmunos kavkasiis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis patriarqs - baton isas;

pativcemulo isa, qarTveli xalxs arc maSin, mZime 90 wlebSi da arc axla ar dauyria far-xmali da Tvisi Tavisuflebis idealebi ar dautovebia!

31 marts zviad gamsaxurdias 70 wlis iubilea.

madlierma qarTvelebma Rirseuli saCuqari miuZRvnes TavianT prezidents - Caricxes ra yoveli drois ukvdav TanamemamuleTa pirvel sameulSi! iubiles damdegisaTvis mTels saqarTveloSi gaimarTa referendumi TavianTi prezidentis anderZis erTgulebis Sesaxeb - da qarTvelma xalxma uCvena, rom misTvis Zviarfasia ara „kremli“ an „dasavleTi“, aramed, rogorc daviTis, ilias da zviadis dros, aseve dResac mxars uWers Tavisuflebis moyvare mezobeli xalxebis erTmuStad Sekvras da mxolod elodeba dros, ros gamoCndeba mimdevari zviadisa da joxaris gzisa, romelic waruZRveba mas kavkasiis Tavisuflebisa da erTianobisaTvis brZolaSi!

rusulidan Targmna aleqsandre sanduxaZem

X X X

inga RutiZe

filoogiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

leqsikis sesxebis erTi Taviseburebis Sesaxeb TurqeTis eTnikur qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi M

me-19 saukuneSi ruseTis mier ganxorcielebul politikas Sedegad saxelmwifoebriobis dakargva, erTiani saxelmwifos daSla, teritoriebis dakargva, qarTveli eris sxvadasxva eTnografiuli jgufebis calke xalxebad gamocxadeba, mahmadian qarTvelTa sakuTari sacxovrisidan ayra da TurqeTSi didi gadasaxleba mohyva, romelic istoriaSi muhajirobis saxeliTaa cnobili.

muhajiroba qarTveli eris istoriaSi sruliad samarTlianadaa miCneuli erT-erT umZimes tragediad. “arcerT Semosevas, arcerT barbaros dampyrobels ar miuyenebia imodena zarali istoriuli zemo qarTlis (samcxe-saaTabagos) kuTxeebisaTvis, rac muhajirobam moutana. ZirZveli qarTuli miwa daicala mosaxleobisagan. TiTqmis dacarielda kola, artaani, SavSeTi, klarjeTi, livana, murRuli, maWaxeli, tao, aWara, qobuleTi. dacarielebul soflebSi gaCanagda meurneoba, bevri soflis saxsenebeli samudamod waiSala. saarqivo cnobebi gvatyobineben, rom 1879 wlis gasaxlebis Semdeg qobuleTSi ori aTasi mcxovrebidan xuTasamde darCa, xolo maxlobeli soflebi sruliad gaveranda da gapartaxda. iyo soflebi, sadac arc erTi suli aRar darCeniliyo. mag. kvirike-qobuleTSi, arsenauli-qedaSi, ereguna-murRulSi... (S. futkaraZe, 1993, 9; megreliZe, 1964, 48).

araerTi naSromi da gamokvleva mieZRvna TurqeTis teritoriaze mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelTa, umeteswilad ki arTvinis vilaieTSi Semavali soflebis istoriuli, eTnologiuri da lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT Seswavlas (n. mari, z. WiWinaZe, g. yazbegi, d. hilsi, S. futkaraze, t. futkaraZe, n. cecxlaZe, r. TofCiSvili r. gujejiani...), romelTac momavlisaTvis fasdaudebeli mniSvneloba eqneba.

winamdebare naSromi muhajirobis dros TurqeTSi, kerZod, uludaRis qedis Ziras mdebare bursas vilaieTis qalaq inegolis mimdebare soflebSi mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelTa leqsikis erT Taviseburebas Seexeba;

Tuki ena yvelaze mkafiod da mZafrad gamoxatavs eTnosis suls awmyosa da warsulis ganumeorebeli sinTeziT, leqsika yvelaze adre aRiqvams eTnosSi mimdinare cvlilebebs, Taviseburi reaqcia aqvs maT mimarT. amdenad, leqsikaSi asaxuli yvela cvlileba, Tundac umniSvnelo, erT-erTi ZiriTadi aspeqtia yvela eTnosis istoriisa da eTnikuri saxis Sesaqmnelad. es miT ufro mniSvnelovania, roca sakiTxi istoriul sacxovriss, enobriv da kulturul sivrces mowyvetil eTnikur jgufs exeba.

sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom TurqeTis mosaxleoba eTnikuri siWreliT gamoirCeva. TurqeTSi Zalian Znelia zusti statistikis dadgena garkveuli da obieqturi mizezebis gamo, magram Tuki statistika zusti iqneboda, SesaZloa, TurqeTi pirvel rigebSi aRmoCndes am TvalsazrisiT. Ees mcire eqskursi imisTvis dagvWirda, rom muhajirobis dros ayril mahmadian qarTvelTa didi nawili, romelic Tavs “gurjs" uwodebs, garkveuli wlebis xetialis Semdeg bursis vilaieTis qalaq inegolsa da mis mimdebare soflebSi damkvidrda, sadac ramdenime eTnosis warmomadgenlebma: Turqebma, afxazebma, Cerqezebma, qurTebma, bulgarelma pomakebma, arnautebma, bosnielebma, boSebma... moiyares Tavi. Ees am teritoriaze mcxovrebTa arasruli CamonaTvalia. dRes mTlianad eTnikuri qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli inegolis 13 sofeli: sulhie, fevzie, baTaqli, gulbahCe, hairie, muraTbei, hilmie, saadeTi, mesrurie, bahCeqaia, TufeqCiyonaRi, yazeli, xolo yarayadis mosaxleobis didi umravlesoba eTnikuri qarTveli, "gurjia", mcire raodenobiTaa warmodgenili e. w. “mesxi Turqi", xolo baharieSi, yarajayaiasa da gunei qesTaneSi eTnikuri qarTvelebi sxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebTan erTad cxovroben. eTnikuri qarTvelebs mTeli Tavisi istoriis manZilze mudmivi da sxvadasxvagvari enobrivi da kulturuli urTierToba hqondaT sxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebTan. isini yovelTvis eZebdnen formebs amgvari urTierTobisTvis, amitomac kulturul-enobrivi kontaqtebi, leqsikuri Sexvedrebi kacobriobis istoriasaviT Zvelia. kulturul-enobrivi kontaqtebi da leqsikuri Sexvedrebi, rogorc cnobilia, sxvadasxva gzebiTa da saSualebebiT xorcieldeboda, magram rogorc sxvadasxva faqtisa da monacemis analizi gviCvenebs, amgvari urTierTobis rezultati yovelTvis damokidebuli iyo, aris da iqneba im politikuri da socialuri urTierTobis xasiaTze, romelic maT Soris arsebobs.

dRes aRaravin kamaTobs imaze, rom araTu mravaleTnikur, aramed iseT garemoSic ki, sadac ori eTnosis warmomadgenlebi xvdebian erTmaneTs, enobrivi interferenciis xarisxi ganuzomlad maRalia. dRevandeli urbanizaciis pirobebSi es procesi TiTqmis Seuqcevadia. bursis regionSi warmodgenil sxvadasxva eTnosis warmomomadgenlebi da maTTan erTad eTnikuri qarTvelebic TurqeTis enobrivi politikis Sedegad erTsa da imave, Turqul enaze metyveleben, miuxedavad maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli spefikuri sxvaobebisa, romlebic warmoTqmaSi aisaxeba.

enaTmecnierebaSi arsebobs cneba enobrivi Tu dialeqturi “kunZulisa" (Domaschnew 1994b, 323-328) e.w. eTnikur jgufebSi, romlebic kompaqturad mosaxleoben sxva enobriv, ucxoenovan garemoSi. cnobili germanisti p. vizingeri aRniSnavs, rom enobrivi kunZulis qveS igulisxmeba mcirericxovani enobrivi koleqtivi sxva sazRvrebSi, ufro msxvil, ucxoenovan teritoriaze (Wiesinger, 1983, 900-930).

g. protce enobriv kunZuls ganixilavs rogorc nawils, gamoyofils ZiriTadi kompaqturi enobrivi teritoriidan ucxo eniTa da kulturiT, romelic amgvar pirobebSi enobrivi da kulturuli urTierTobis TvalsazrisiT saintereso TviTmyofad cxovrebas inarCunebs (Protze, 1969, 595). G

miuxedavad zemoaRniSnulisa, rom enobrivi Tu dialeqturi kunZulis mcxovrebni enobrivi da kulturuli TvalsazrisiT saintereso TviTmyofad cxovrebas inarCuneben, Cveni dakvirvebis Sedegad, romelsac mravaleTnikur garemoSi vawarmoebdiT, amgvar enobriv koleqtivebs ukve cota aqvs saerTo rogorc Tavis enobriv samSoblosTan, ise Tavis garemomcvel ucxoenovan samyarosTan. Tumca ucxoenovan samyarosTan mravalmxrivi urTierTobebis ganviTarebisas axal garemoSi amgvari “kunZulebis mcxovrebni iReben am qveynis socialur, ekonomikur da kulturul urTierTobebs da maT yofasa da enaSi dRes Tanamedrove msoflioSi mimdinare procesebidan gamomdinare araTu nel-nela, aramed daCqarebuli tempebiT mimdinareobs cvlilebebi, romlebic TvalSisacemia nebismieri damkvirveblisa Tu mkvlevarisaTvis. amitom saWiroa iseTi gzebisa Tu saSualebebis Zieba, romlebic xels uwyobs eTnikuri jgufis mier enis SenarCunebas. specialur literaturaSi kargad aris Sefasebuli is rTuli politikur-ekonomikuri garemo, romelSic es xalxi cxovrobda; gasaTvaliswinebelia eTnikur qarTvelTa cxovrebis specifikuri pirobebi, im jgufisa, romelic mowyvetilia istoriul samSoblos, darRveuli aqvs Tavisi eTnosis sxva warmomadgenlebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kulturuli sivrce da kulturul RirebulebaTa sistema. am mxriv inegolisa da mimdebare soflebis eTnikur qarTvelTa mdgomareoba mkveTrad gansxvavdeba arTvinis vilaieTSi mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelTa mdgomareobisgan, romlebic dResac im teritoriaze cxovroben, romelic istoriulad maTi gansaxlebis arealia. rodesac eTnikuri jgufi Tavisi istoriuli gansaxlebis areals ar wydeba, enobriv-kulturuli sivrcisa da Rirebulebebis SenarCuneba, Tundac nawilobriv, SesaZlebelia.

swored amgvar enobriv kunZuls qmnian istoriul samSoblos mowyvetili eTnikuri qarTvelebi TurqeTSi, romlebic axal enobriv garemoSi aRmoCndnen; garemo, romelsac bunebrivad unda SeezRuda qarTuli enis leqsikis gamoyenebis sfero - Turquli enis masalis gamoyenebisa da gaZlierebis xarjze.

ra ganapirobebs qarTuli enis SenarCunebas im xalxis metyvelebaSi, romlis ramdenime Taoba arasodes yofila saqarTveloSi, magram gaTavisebuli aqvs qarTuli ena, romelic zepirad, zepirmetyvelebiT gadaecema Taobidan Taobas? am TvalsazrisiT ramdenime garemoebaa saintereso. “sxvadasxva xalxebis da maTi enebis Sereva-asimilaciis xelisSemSlel araerT faqtorze miuTiTeben mecnierebaSi. pirvelyovlisa asaxeleben bunebriv-geografiul pirobebs. didi mTebi, xeobebi, ganieri mdinareebi, udabnoebi... xels uSlidnen ori an ramdenime xalxis (eTnosis) eTnikur da enobriv kontaqtebs. iq, sadac aseTi xelisSemSleli pirobebi ar iyo istoriulad ori eTnosis sakontaqto zonaSi yovelTvis gvqonda Sereuli mosaxleoba, rac xSirad erTi eTnosis mier meore eTnosis asimilacias iwvevda (TofCiSvili, 2005,192-193). enaTa Seurevlobis mizezad asaxeleben meurneobis formasac. magram amjerad yuradRebas erT aspeqtze SevaCerebT. es gaxlavT leqsikis sesxebis Taviseburi tipi.

Turquli ena ukve ganuyofeli nawilia TurqeTis respublikaSi mcxovrebi yvela eTnikuri jgufisaTvis da mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli yoveldRiur yofasTan da im sagnebisa da movlenebis nominaciasTan, romelic saerToa erT teritoriaze mcxovrebi xalxisaTvis; da mainc Turquli enis leqsikis gavlenis TvalsazrisiT unda gamoiyos 2 jgufi, romliTac eTnikuri qarTvelebi jer kidev axerxeben enobriv regulacias:

1) pirvel jgufs miekuTvneba leqsika, romelic ukavSirdeba oficialur sferos, saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv cxovrebas, profesiisa da socialuri statusis aRmniSvneli leqsika, romelic saerToa yvela jgufisaTvis. es leqsikuri erTeulebia: respublika, xelisufleba mTavroba, saxelmwifo, samSoblo, bina, dawesebuleba, politika, sasamarTlo, sabaJo, inspeqcia, SeTanxmeba, sazRvari, saxelmwifo saavadmyofo, skola, ufleba, qoneba, sakuTreba, arCevnebi, nebarTva, Svebuleba, Cinovniki, mosamsaxure, Tanamdebobis piri, mmarTveli, ufrosi, direqtori, xelmZRvaneli, inJineri, mamasaxlisi, qirurgi, maswavlebeli, moZRvari, meomari, jariskaci, ostati, specialisti, xelmarjve, gamocdili, morige, mcveli, mwerali, avtori, AmSenebeli, da a.S

2) meore jgufSi gamoiyofa vaWrobasTan, mrewvelobasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika da agreTve is leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba Turquli eTno- sis cxovrebasa da yofiT realiebs: mrewveloba, industria, masala, angariSi, fara, fuli, rafinirebuli saqoneli, vali, procenti, vaWari, arsebobis saSualeba, Amiwa, adgili, patroni, mflobeli, saxli, komli, restorani, dRe-Ramis samyofi kerZi, yidva-gayidva, vaWroba, angariSi, moTxovna, komerciuli moTxovna, jgufi, kompania, kapitaldabandeba, dotacia, infrastruqtura, vaWari...

TiTqmis saukune gadis aTaTurqis reformebidan, romlebmac uzrunvelyo Turquli enis sayovelTao da intensiuri gavrceleba TurqeTis mTel teritoriaze da, bunebrivia, eTnikuri jgufis cxovrebis socialur-ekonomikuri da politikur-kulturuli sfero saojaxo eniT an kidev maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli yofiT ver Semoifargleboda. aseT pirobebSi Turquli enis yovlismomcveli gavlena Tundac eTnikur qarTvelTa im TaobaSi, romelsac Turqul skolaSic ki ar uvlia, ganuzomlad didia. amasTanave Tu gaviTvaliswinebT iseT regionSi cxovrebas, romelSic ramdenime eTnosis warmomadgenelma moiyara Tavi da sxvadasxva enaTa Tu dialeqtTa Serevis gardauvali procesebi mimdinareobs, cxadia, ra sirTulis winaSe idga eTnikur qarTvelTa jgufi, romelsac yvela gza unda moesinja eTnikuri saxis SenarCunebisTvis. erT-erT aseT ZiriTad saSualebad unda darCeniliyo eTnikuri enis leqsikis didi nawili, romelsac isini saojaxo yofasa da yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi iyenebdnen. eTnikuri enis leqsikis arsebiTi nawili unda SenarCunebuliyo.; radgan Tuki istoriul samSoblos mowyvetili eTnikuri jgufi saojaxo yofasa da yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi sakuTari eTnosis enis leqsikis did nawils cvlis da saxelmwifo enis gavlenas uqvemdebarebs, iq yvela sistemur Taviseburebaze msjeloba, fonemuri Sedgeniloba iqneba es Tu gramatikuli wyoba, yovelgvar azrs moklebulia. amitomac cdilobdnen eTnikuri qarTvelebi ar daerRviaT ZiriTadi leqsikuri qsovili da Turquli leqsikidan, romelic TandaTanobiT, magram myarad ikidebda fexs maT saojaxo yofasa da yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, umeteswilad iseTi sityvebi esesxebinaT romlebic axali realobisa da cnebebis amsaxveli iyo. dakvirvebam gviCvena, zRvari leqsikis am ubnebs Soris isea gavlebuli eTnikur qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi, rom leqsemebi: dedis ena, sisxli, xorci, sofeli, Tovli, sicocxle, vazi, suli, sikvdili, sircxvili, mTa, kordi, wyali, qorwili, stumari, puri, yana, xevi, mezobeli, kaci, qali, dedamTili, mamamTili, baRvi, prati, wisqvili, tba, sabZeli, kari, tirili, dedaberi, varia, axori, miwa, fxalobiai, kerCxilobiai, korkoti, Wimuri, Wadi, keci, samzero, mziTvali, kravi, kakuna, nikora, lerwi, dodofali, marwyvi, Joli, narkokoba, vaSli, sxali, cacxvi, Tela, wabli, Txili, kakali, mayuali, nekeri, nakuercxali, beReli, nalia, nadi, xvimiri, daTvi, (m)geli, Tagvi, korwiala, wyaro, (r)Ze, faCxi(fi- Cxi), cica, cecxli, Wiayela, bze, bululi, cxrili, guli, Tvali, ofli, Rvari, Rele- Rurdani... da uamravi leqsikuri erTeuli, romlebic maTi eTnikuri enis leqsikis ZiriTadi nawilia, saojaxo yofasa da sakuTari eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebTan urTierTobisas ucvlelia. es leqsika kvlavac myari da Caunacvlebelia Turquli leqsikuri erTeulebiT. Tu Cven mier mopovebul masalas SevedarebT S. futkaraZis mier 1993 Caweril masalebSi asaxul leqsikas, am mxriv situacia ucvlelia. eTnikur qarTvelTa ganmartebiT es suraTi ar unda Seicvalos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ena “gadairecxeba, enis moSla am procesiT daiwyeba.

Cveulebriv, lingvisturi kvlevebi saqarTvelos farglebs gareT mcxovreb eTnikur qarTvelebSi gramatikisa da Cawerili teqstebis sityvaTa korpusis utilizebiT Semoifargleba, romlebic eTnikuri jgufis kulturis sxvadasxva donis amsaxvelia. dRes didi socialuri cvlilebebis epoqaSi enobrivi kontaqtebis sociolingvistur aspeqtebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba did mniSvnelobas iZens, Turquli leqsikis sesxebis Taviseburi tipi, romelmac uzrunvelyo eTnikur qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi qarTuli leqsikis SenarCuneba, erTi aspeqtia im procesisa, romelic mimdinareobs ara izolirebulad, aramed cocxali da produqtiuli urTierTobiT meore enasTan, rac kidev erTxel adasturebs enobrivi urTierTobebis rezultatis ganumeoreblobas.

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IBERIANA | iberia | gamoCenili qarTveli qalebi | saqarTvelos sulieri missia | qarTuli anbani | kidevac daizrdebian | IBERIANA

IBERIANA | mTavari problema | "ganmaTavisuflebeli" | "marad iberia" | mesame alternativa | IBERIANA

IBERIANA | Iberia | History of Georgia | Spiritual Mission of Georgia | Georgian Alphabet | Georgian Surnames | Famous Georgian Women | Life of St. Nino | Iberia Forever | IBERIANA

 

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