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saqarTvelos sulieri missia

gamoCenili qarTveli qalebi

 medea

Tamar mefe

qeTevan wamebuli


XVIII saukunis mebrZoli qalebi

Tamro vaSlovneli

maia wyneTeli

Tina wavkiseli


damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZoli qalebi

1832 wlis SeTqmuleba

batoniSvili Tamari

Tekla batoniSvili

qeTevan batoniSvili

dedofali nino

manana orbeliani


qarTuli anbani

qarTuli gvarebi



"momavlis mTavroba"

"samefo gvirgvini" 

 

"kidevac daizrdebian" 


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mTavari gverdi

  gamoCenili qarTveli qalebi

 

 

 (Zv w XIV-XIII ss.)

="font-size: 11pt; face="AcadNusx" color: teal"> medea - kolxeTis mefe aietis grZneuli umcrosi asuli., romelsac saberZneTidan movlenili Wabuki iasoni xilvisTanave TavdaviwyebiT Seuyvarda. iasonma, medeas SemweobiT, moitaca oqros sawmisi da medeac Tan waiyvana saberZneTSi. (am ambavs eZRvneba Tqmuleba argonavtebis Sesaxeb). oqros sawmisTan erTad, aietma mefobac dakarga. misma naxevar Zmam perses III misi adgili daikava.

aTi weliwadi cxovrobdnen medea da iasoni erTad. hqondaT ojaxi, hyavdaT Svilebi... da uecrad…medeam Seityo saSineli ambavi: iasoni mis meuRleobaze xels iRebda da colad irTavda korinTos mefis asuls. maSin medeam moRalate qmars sacole moukla. mokluli sadedoflos naTesavebma Suri iZies - medeas Svilebi dauxoces. (am saSineli ambidan gaivlis daaxloebiT aTasi weliwadi da didi berZeni mwerali evripide dawers saqveynod cnobil tragedias ”medea”, sadac man kolxi qali sakuTari Svilebis mkvlelad warmosaxa).

amis Semdeg, medea Cavida aTenSi da colad gahyva mefe egevss. misgan eyola vaJi medosi. rodesac taxtis kanonieri memkvidre Tesevsi ewvia aTens, medeam Tavis SvilTan erTad datova saberZneTi da aiaSi inkignitod dabrunda. imxanad aieti aRar flobda samefo skiptras. medosi daexmara papas Zalauflebis dabrunebaSi.

medea da medicina

medeas saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva daavadebis mkurnaloba, sxvadasxva saxis Zilmomgvreli, Zalmomcemi, ganmkurnebeli, momakvdinebeli saSualebebis, nelsacxeblebis, SesaorTqlebeli, Sesasxurebeli, dasazeli  da a.S. wamleulis momzadeba; samkurnalo mcenareebis moSeneba da maTi Tvisebebis Seswavla, Sxamebisa da antiSxamebis gamoyeneba, gaaxalgazrdavebisa da sicocxlis gaxangrZlivebis  racionaluri meTodebis Zieba da sxva.

medeas Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT SegiZliaT waikiTxoT levan sanikiZis wignSi ”ambavi kolxi asulisa”.

ioseb noneSvili - "medea"

 

 

 (1166-1213)

 Tamar mefe iyo daviT aRmaSeneblis SviliSvilis giorgi mesamisa (1156-1184ww.)  da dedofal burduxais qaliSvili. Tamar bagrationi daibada 1166 wels. giorgis vaJi ar hyavda. qalis gamefeba im dros araTu saqarTveloSi, msoflioSic iSviaTi mov;lena iyo. giorgim gadawyvita Tavis sicocxleSive gaemefebina Tamari, raTa SemdgomSi mas sirTuleebi ar Seqmnoda. 1179 wels giorgim Tanamosaydred akurTxa igi. mama-Svili erTad marTavda samefos.

    1184 wels giorgi III gardaicvala da 18 wlis Tamari gaxda erTpirovnuli mmarTveli, saqarTvelos pirveli qali mefe.

   1185 wels darbazis gadawyvetilebiT Tamari colad gahyva iuri bogolubskis. male iurim Tavisi uaryofiTi pirovnuli Tvisebebi gamoamJRavna da 1987 wels saqarTvelodan gaaZeves. maT memkvidre ar eyolaT.

1188 wels Tamari colad gahyva daviT soslans. daviTi iyo giorgi I-is Zis, demetres STamomavali, bagrationi. maT eyolaT qal-vaJi rusudani da laSa-giorgi.

    Tamari gonieri mefe gamodga. man Rirseulad ganagrZo daviT aRmaSeneblisa da giorgi mesamis dawyebuli saqme. saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis sistema, romlis reformac daiwyo daviT IV aRmaSenebelma, saboloo saxiT Camoyalibda Tamaris mefobis dros. es iyo sakmaod kargad gaazrebuli sistema, romelic warmatebiT asrulebda Tavis funqcias – qveynis marTvas.

      Tamar mefem qveynis SigniT mdgomareobis ganmtkicebis Semdeg daiwyo aqtiuri sagaroeo politikis gatareba. Tamaris mefobis dros saqarTvelo gaxda uZlieresi qveyana axlo aRmosavleTSi da saqarTvelos politikuri da ekonomikuri gavlena vrceldeboda mis farglebs gareT.

X X X

 Tamari mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda qveynis religiur da kulturul cxovrebaSi. xels uwyobda qarTuli orTodoqsuli eklesiebis mSeneblobas. misi mefobis dros aSenda varZia, qvabTaxevi, beTania. ganviTarda mxatvroba, Weduroba, literatura. am periodis mniSvnelovani literaturuli Zeglebia CaxruxaZis “Tamariani” da ioane SavTelis “abdulmesia”, sadac Seqebulia Tamar mefis sulieri sispetake, garegnuli silamaze, goniereba, saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTveloba.

      ara mxolod am epoqis, aramed saerTod qarTuli mwerlobis ubrwyinvalesi nimuSia SoTa rusTavelis poema “vefxis tyaosani”, sadac TinaTinis gamefebas safuZvlad udevs Tamaris gamefebis istoria.

   XII-XIII saukuneebis mijnaze saqarTvelo iyo politikurad, ekonomikurad da kulturulad erT-erTi yvelaze Zlieri,  dawinaurebuli da uzarmazari saxelmwifo. erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifo gadaWimuli iyo nikofsiidan darubandamde da oseTidan aregawamde. qarTvelebi am periods uwodeben “oqros xanas”.

    gamudmebulma marxvam, fexSiSvelma litaniobam, monastris qvis sarecelze wolam da samefo Rvawlma mefes janmrTeloba Seuryia. Tamar mefe gardaicvala 1213 wels da dasaflavebul iqna gelaTis sakaTedro taZarSi. arsebobs mosazreba, rom SemdgomSi SesaZloa igi ierusalimis jvris monasterSi gadaasvenes.

qarTulma eklesiam Tamar mefe wmindanad Seracxa da misi xsenebis dRed 1(14) maisi daawesa.

 

 

   

  XVII saukunis dasawyisSi qarTli da kaxeTi iranis qveSevrdomebad iTvlebodnen. kaxeTis mesveurebi garegnulad Sahis erTgulebas aCvenebdnen, farulad ki ajanyebisaTvis emzadebodnen. am saqmes saTaveSi edga qeTevan dedofali.

qeTevan dedofali iyo aSoTan muxran batonis asuli da kaxeTis mefis, aleqsandres, ufrosi vaJis - daviTis - meuRle. daviTi 1602 wels gardaicvala. 1606 wlis gazafxulze qeTevanis TxovniT Sah-abasma kaxeTis mefed qristiani Teimurazi (Teimuraz II) daamtkica. Teimurazi gamefebisas 16 wlis iyo. samefos faqtobrivad qeTevani ganagebda.

Sah-abasma ganizraxa erTxel da samudamod gadaewyvita saqarTvelos sakiTxi. man jer qarTvelebis moraluri gatexva ganisazRvra da qeTevan dedofals mosTxova musulmanobis miReba, razec qeTevan dedofalma mravalgzis uari ganacxada. dedofali qeTevani udidesi saxeliTa da gavleniT sargeblobda xalxSi. Sahma icoda, Tuki dedofali gamahmadiandeboda, es iranis Sahis udidesi gamarjveba iqneboda. muqaram ver gaWra, verafriT aiZula mrisxane Sahma qeTevani gamahmadianebuliyo.

1624 wlis 12 seqtembers SirazSi qeTevan dedofali sikvdiliT dasajes. mzeTunaxavi dedofali sajarod awames gaxurebuli SanTebiT. qarTvelma dedofalma wamebisas didi simtkice gamoiCina.

 qarTulma eklesiam samSoblosaTvis wamebuli dedofali wmindanad Seracxa. Teimuraz mefem dedas uZRvna poema: “wameba qeTevan dedoflisa”.

 œ

XVIII saukunis mebrZoli qalebi

xalxuri

  Tamros deda male moukvda. mamac rom gamoesalma am wuTisofels, batonma Tamro viRac gadamTiels mihyida, magram Tamrom TviTonve daixsna Tavi. mamis ojaxSi rom brundeboda, gamoiara erT tyeSi, sadac daTvi daxvda win da daeWida, magram uSiSarma gmirma qalma mokla daTvi da daixsna Tavi meore gansacdelisagan. Tamro cxovrobda sofel vaSlovanSi. yofila sastiki da gautexeli, mexi dedakaci, ris gamoc misi saxeli ganTqmula saqarTveloSi. sofelSi uimisod ara keTdeboda ra. erTxel vaSlovans TaTrebi dascemian, aukliaT sofeli, daungreviaT eklesiebi da mcxovrebni tyved wauyvaniaT. Tamro gamosdgomia TaTrebs, daswevia Tavisi razmiT da sakvirveli gmiroba gamouCenia. mteri daumarcxebia da gauTavisuflebia qarTveli tyveebi. es ambavi erekle mefes rom Seutyvia, Zlier didis madlobiT uTqvams TamrosaTvis:

- oh, Svilo! Sen genacvalos Cemi moxuci Tavi, rom Senis magaliTiT kacebic gamxnevdneno.

 mefes miucia misTvis da misi amxanagebisatvis tyvia-wamali da erT zarbazansac dahpirebia.

Tamros Tavis razmSi bevri meomari qalic hyolia. Tamros da mis razms bevrjer gadaurCenia vaSlovanis mcxovrebni lekebisa da TaTrebis TareSisagan.

erT av aznaurs misi dideba da qeba SeSurebia da qveynis Ralati daubralebia. mefes pirze dauyenebia mabezRari TamrosaTvis. Tamros daumtkicebia Tavisi erTguleba samSoblo qveynisa da mtroba da Ralati TviT im mabezRari aznaurisa. maSin mefes uTqvams TamrosaTvis:

- wadi Svilo Tamro, ecade Seni magaliTiT mamakacebic gauerTgulo samSobloso.

am dros mefesTan yofilan Tavadebi da radgan moswonebiaT Tamros axovaneba, uTxoviaT, ai im falavans daeWideo, Tamros uari ar uTqvams, dasWidebia da daumarcxebia es falavani.

falavnobam Tamros bevri mteri gauCina. amitom damalula da aravis eCveneboda. igi icavda glexebis ojaxebs borotmoqmedi batonebisagan, ris gamoc batonebi gadaemteren. erT dRes dauWeriaT da mdinare mtkvarSi gadaugdiaT. Tamros bevri uwvalia da erT burjze asula, magram iqidan sisustis gamo veRar Camosula da mSier-mwyurvals suli ganutevebia. misi gvami didi pativiT dausaflavebiaT TrialeTis eklesiaSi.

  

 xalxuri

 glexis qals, maia wyneTels, mefe erekles dros ucxovria (XVIII saukunis meore naxevari). uasako yofila, roca batons ZaliT miuyvania saxlSi da namusi auxdia. maias mSoblebs ver autaniaT es mwuxareba da male gamosalmebian wuTisofels. mamas tyeSi CamouxrCvia Tavi, dedas SimSiliT Tavi mouklavs. erT Rames Caucvams mamamisis tanisamosi, Semourtyams xmali, xanjali, mxarze mamis Tofi gadaukidia da Casula TbilisSi. ase vaJurad gamowyobili misula mefe erekles karze da mfarveloba uTxovia. mefes miuRia igi. maias saxelad maTe daurqmevia. ar gasula didi xani, rom kaxeTis mxares dascemian lekebi. mefes Seuyria saCqarod jari da Tan gauyolebia Sinaymanic. maTricxvSi yofila maiac. yvelani kargad garjilan mterTan brZolaSi, magram maiasebri vaJkacoba veravis gamouCenia. am dros maia oci wlisa yofila. mefe gaukvirvebia mis mxneobas, simardesa da vaJkacobas. gaxarebuli gadaxvevia, orTav TvalebSi ukocnia da uTqvams:

- ai, Sen ki genacvale! kacic Sena yofilxar da qudic Sen gxurebiao!

TbilisSi rom dabrunebulan, mefes kidev mosvlia ambavi, somxebs TaTris jari Semoesiao. maSin mdevari SeugrovebiaT. Semdgara rCeuli biWebis dasta, romelic pirvelad unda SebrZoleboda mters. maTec iq yofila. omi yofila soRanluRs qveviT. xmalamoRebul maias SeuWenebia cxeni mtris gundSi da meTaurisaTvis anazdad gaugdebinebia Tavi. areula mtris jari da qarTvelebs ise daumarcxebiaT, rom ambis wamRebi kacic aRar darCenila.

 maia Turme Tavzars scemda gareSe da Sinaur mters. misi drois pirSav kacebs Tormeti gogo-biWi miuyidiaT sparselebisaTvis. am ambis Sesatyobineblad mefesTan erTi moxucebuli kaci wamosula. mefis karze maia daxvedria, moxucs Tavisi gasaWiri uTqvams Tu ara, maias maSinve Seukrebia Tavisi amxanagebi, Semsxdaran cxenebze da gamosdgomian yizilbaSebs. miswevian lilosTan, dauxocavT, gauTavisuflebiaT dayiduli gogo-biWebi, mere mefis karze mobrunebulan. maia wamdgara mefis winaSe da uTqvams glexobis mZime mdgomareobis Sesaxeb:

 - glexoba ganadgurda da gawyda, borotmoqmed kacTagan aoxrda soflebi. batonebma dahyides mTeli soflis glexoba; vinc gadarCa, imaT kidev guTanSi, uremsa da kaloSi suls aZroben. mefev gTxovT, mospoT aseTi avkacoba da borotmoqmedebao..

mefes meore dResve mouwvevia sasaxleSi mRvdelmTavrebi da jvariTa da saxarebiT SeuCvenebiaT avni kacni. amgvari saCivrebiT ise Seuwuxebia maias borotmoqmedni, rom maT gadauwyvetiaT maias mokvla.

erT dRes mefes maia sadRac gaugzavnia. es SeutyviaT mis mtrebs da gamosdgomian ukan; magram maias mdevari dauxocavs. erT maTgans moutyuebia: erekles nebavs Seni sikvdilio. maias Tavzari dascemia, eWvi gasCenia, iqneb marTla unda mefes Cemi sikvdilio, Tan guli stkenia, gadauwyvetia: - gavSordebi da yaCaRad gavalo. TrialeTisaken gadasula da dabinavebula erT TyeSi, romlisTvisac xalxs “maias sabudari” daurqmevia. aqedan gamodioda Turme gzebze, usafrdeboda gamvlel-gamovlel Tavgasul kacebs, xocavda da Zarcvavda maT. bolos SeutyviaT mtrebs misi bina da dauwyiaT devna. maSin maias dautovebia Tavisi sabudari da wasula somxeTisaken. dasaxlebula soflad da Tavisi vinaoba daufaravs.

erT dRes mefe erekle misula im sofelSi, sadac maia yofila. erTi soflidan meoreSi acilebdnen Turme mefes soflelebi, maiac gahyolia. imJamad ukve moxucebuli yofila da mefes veRar ucvnia. xma iyo gavardnili, rom maia didi xania rac mokvdao. gzaSi mefes mteri Semoxvda. maias mets Tof-iaraRi aravis hqonia mzad. iman ki Turme jer Tofi esrola mters, mere ki xmaldaxmal miuxda. amis mxilveli sxvebsac guli miscemiaT, gamxnevebulan, Sebmian mters da gaumarjviaT. mefes ukiTxavs maiasaTvis: Sen Zmobilo, vina xar egeTi gmirio?

- batonisagan gamodevnili maTe gaxlavaro. ... amasTanave vacxadeb didebuli mefis winaSe, rom me var dedakaci da ara mamakacio.

amis Semdeg, maias gauxdia kacuri tanisamosi da Caucvams qaluri; magram didxans aRar dasclia sicocxle. sparselebi Semosevian saqarTvelos, maiac garevia qarTvelT laSqarSi, qaluri tansacmeli scmia. sparselebs gahkvirvebiaT misi mamacoba da xanebs ubrZanebiaT cocxlad misi daWera. marTlac, dautyvevebiaT da Tan wauyvaniaT; magram maia gzidan gamoparula da erevnis bolos mouklavT.

1959 wels gadaiRes filmi “maia wyneTeli”, sadac maias rols asrulebs qarTveli msaxiobi leila abaSiZe.

 

 xalxuri

 Tina wavkiseli gabaSvilis yma yofila. iseTive gmiroba da gulSematkivroba gamouCenia glexebisadmi, rogorc maia wyneTels. siymawvileSive SeuracxyofisaTvis mouklavs Tavisi batoni, magram Tinaze eWvi aravis miutania.

amis Semdeg gasula xani. Tina da kidev sxva gogo-biWebi batonis naTesavebs miuyidiaT sparselebisaTvis. gzaze myidvelT moundomebiaT maTze Zaladoba. Tinas Seutyvia maTi ganzraxva, daurigebia Tavisi amxanagebi, waurTmeviaT sparselebisaTvis xanjlebi da dauxocavT yvelani, Semsxdaran maT cxenebze, wamosulan mefe ereklesTan da yvelaferi dawvrilebiT uambiaT. mefes gakvirvebia maTi mxneoba. sxva qalebi dauTxovnia, Tina ki sasaxleSi Seunaxavs. sasaxleSi yofnisas Tinas kargad Seuswavlia Tofis srola, xmlisa da xanjlis xmareba da cxenze jdoma. mas ara erTxel usaxelebia Tavi mamacobiT, mxneobiTa da xmlis xmarebiT.

erT omSi Tinas da erT glexs ise mamacurad uomiaT, rom mefes Zlier moswonebia isini, miuwvevia TavisTan oriveni da ubrZanebia maTTvis SeuRleba. maT aRusrulebiaT batonis brZaneba da dasaxlebulan wavkiss. Tinas SesZenia ori vaJi, magram mainc ar mouklia qveynisaTvis samsaxuri: is yofila Tavisi soflis, wavkisis mcveli mterTagan.

Tinas aRa-maxmad-xanis winaaRmdeg brZolaSic miuRia monawileoba (1795 w.). gadmocemiT, igi bolnisis mxares mouklavT da ereklem iqve, bolnisis sionTan, daasaflavebina qmris gverdiT, saflavis qvaze maTi saxe amoaWrevina, maT oblebs ki sasaxleSi zrdida.

 œ

damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZoli qalebiE

   "qarTveli qalis mdgomareoba ojaxSi da sazogadoebaSi didad gansxvavdeba yvela sxva eris qalis mdgomareobidan. misi roli, misi saxeli, misdami pativiscema mamakacebisagan gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa".

n. JordaniaL

"qali iyo qarTuli ojaxis burji, simtkice da safuZveli saxelmwifosi. ara naklebi iyo qarTveli qalis roli politikaSic, saxelmwifos marTva-gamgeobaSi.

qarTveli sazogadoebis gamaerTianebeli yovelTvis qali iyo da es roli qarTvelma qalma SeinarCuna me-19 saukunis pirvel naxavramde.

eqvTime TayaiSvili

    darejan dedofali, erekle II-is meuRle, da misi Rirseuli qalebi qeTevani, mariami da Tekla Tavidanve antirusuli ganwyobilebisani iyvnen, ris gamoc prorusuli orientaciis erekle mefis risxva daimsaxures.

darejan dedofali iyo asuli samegrelos mTavris giorgi dadianisa. igi daibada 1735 wlis 20 ivliss. darejani iyo mefe erekles mesame coli. maT eyolaT 8 vaJi da 6 asuli. dedofali Tavidanve mtrulad uyurebda erekles ruseTTan daaxloebas. erekles mier ruseTisaken gadadgmuli nabijis Semdeg iwyeba dedofal darejanis uSualod Careva samefo saqmeebSi, rac droTa ganmavlobaSi ufro aqtiuri xdeboda. jer kidev 1770 wels aspinZis brZolis win dainaxa darejanma ruseTis diplomatiis namdvili saxe da ruseTis "daxmareba-mfarvelobis" ara ra swamda. ara marto erekles vaJebi da qalebi, aramed mravali saxelovani da gavleniani piri miemxro dedofals da mefis sasaxleSive gaCnda pirveli antirusuli moZraoba. darejan dedofali da misi momxreebi bolos mainc veras gaxdnen da 1783 w. 24 ivniss q. georgievskSi moewera xeli cnobil traqtats ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris. 1795 wlis seqtemberSi TbilisSi aRa-maxmad-xani SemoiWra. ruseTi saqarTvelos amjeradac ar daexmara. sparseTma saqarTvelo daarbia da uamravi tyve waasxa.

1798 wlis 11 ianvars iveriis mze Caesvena, gardaicvala erekle mefe. batoniSvilma giorgim isargebla am momentiT da samefo funqciebi xelT aiRo. qveyana sust da uZlur giorgis xelidan ecleboda. 1800 wlis 28 dekembers mefe giorgi gardaicvala da samefos gadarCenis imedebic Tan waiRo.

 saubedurod, gamarTlda darejanis winaTgrZnoba. 1801 wlis 12 seqtembers ruseTis imperatorma aleqsandre I-ma xeli moawera manifests, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gaauqmebis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelom dakarga damoukidebloba da ruseTis imperiis nawili gaxda. ruseTis samxedro-saokupacio reJimis damyarebam qarTveli eri umZimes mdgomareobaSi Caagdo, rasac mohyva 1802 wlis politikuri gamosvla kaxeTSi da 1804 wlis mTiuleTis ajanyeba.

samefos gadasarCenad yvelam darejanis garSemo moiyara Tavi. dedofali taxtis aRdgenas da manifestis gauqmebas moiTxovda. bagrationTa Soris uTanxmoebis mospobam sagonebelSi Caagdo ruseTi da gadawyvites dedofali darejani da bagrationebi saCqarod moeSorebinaT saqarTvelodan ... xelmwife maT ruseTSi gadasaxlebas iTxovda da saqveynod amas "sadarbazod miwvevas" arqmevda.

1803 wlis noemberSi darejan dedofali ruseTSi gadaasaxles. saqarTvelos sazRvramde acilebda xalxi jariT garSemortymul sayvarel dedofals. saqarTvelo mistiroda marTlac ukanasknel dedofals, romelic iZulebiT da amayad stovebda sayvarel samSoblos.

darejan dedofali gardaicvala 1807 wlis 8 noembers peterburgSi da dakrZales nevis monasterSi, xarebis eklesiaSi.

 œ

darejanis gadasaxlebis Semdeg misma qaliSvilebma da rZlebma gaagrZeles antirusuli moRvaweoba.

qeTevan batoniSvili - ioane muxran-batonis qvrivi Tavis vaJ konstantinesTan erTad did monawileobas iRebda 1804 welis qarTlis mTianeTis ajanyebaSi. qeTevanis piradi msaxuri yofila Sikriki da saimedo piri am SeTqmulebisas.

1805 wlis ianvarSi ajanyeba cecxliTa da maxviliT Caaqres. 1804 wlis ajanyebis gmirebi iuloni da farnaozi sxva batoniSvilebTan erTad ruseTSi gadaasaxles. qeTevani Tavis sasaxleSi daapatimres. ruseTisaTvis naTeli iyo, rom qeTevanma bevri ram icoda 1802 wlisa da 1804 wlis SeTqmulebaTa Sesaxeb. mis gamosatexad usastikesi zomebi miiRes, magram maT qeTevani ver gastexes da ruseTSi gadasaxlebiT dauwyes wameba. swored am patimrobis xanas unda ekuTvnodes batoniSvil qeTevanis mraval-mxriv SesaniSnavi leqsi - "hoi viTar vsTqva".

qeTevan batoniSvilis patimrobisas aRmoxeTqil kvnesas yvelaze uwin gamoexmaura Tekla batoniSvili, mefe erekles yvelaze umcrosi qali, ganTqmuli Seudarebeli sikekluce-silamazesTan erTad, Tavisi vaJuri mxneobiT, SemZleobiTa da ucnauri siTamamiT; saucxoo monadire, cxenze mojiriTe da mkvircxli bunebis. TviTon erekle "vaJkacs" eZaxda, 16 wlamde vaJurad hyolia Cacmuli da xSirad utarebia mogzaurobis Tu laSqrobis dros. mas sami vaJi hyavda: cnobili poeti vaxtang orbeliani, istorikosi aleqsandre da dimitri.

Tekla Tavis leqsSi "pasuxad qeTevan batoniSvils", kidev ufro cxovlad da muqi ferebiT gadmogvcems Tavisi dis tyveobis ambavs, mtrebis sisins da misi dis glovis mizezs. magram is mainc ar sTvlis saqmes wagebulad da qeTevanisebur usazRvro pesimizms ar eZleva. (ukve WaRara mosili Tekla batoniSvili 1832 wlis SeTqmulebaSic monawileobda Tavis saxelovan SvilebTan erTad).

samSoblos didebis dacemiT gamowveuli pesimizmi qeTevanis meore das batoniSvil mariams ufro enaTesaveba, vidre Teklas. mariami iyo meuRle qalaqis mouravis daviT ciciSvilisa, hyavda oTxi vaJi. mariami yofila Zalian niWieri, didad daxelovnebuli saRmrTo werilSi, poeti, musikosi; uyvarda mxiaruleba, magram samefo saxlis ruseTSi gadasaxlebis Semdeg yovelive mxiaruleba daiviwya, wavida Tavis sofel qarelSi, swerda samgloviaro leqsebs, iyo locvaSi da RvTis vedrebaSi.

1804 wlis 22 agvistos saxelmwifo sabWos dadgenilebiT qarTuli samefo saxlis mamulebi gadairicxa xazinis sasargeblod. bagrationTa sasaxleebSi rusi moxeleebi mokalaTdnen, mamulebis SemosavliT rusul xazinas avsebdnen, bagrationebi ki usazRvro materialur gaWirvebaSi cxovrobdnen. magram batoniSvilebSi ar aRmoCenila arc erTi, romelic "oqros mTebsa" da "fufunebas" daxarbdeboda, arcerTi imaTgani ruseTs nebiT ar damorCilebia da ruseTSi nebiT ar wasula.

1832 wlis SeTqmuleba

XIX saukunis damdegs dawyebuli erovnuli moZraobis logikur gagrZelebas warmoadgenda 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba, romlis sulisCamdgmenelni iyvnen ruseTSi gadasaxlebuli bagrationTa samefo saxlis warmomadgenlebi. am SeTqmulebaSi mamakacebTan erTad monawileobda mravali qali, maT Soris gamorCeulia mefe erekles SviliSvili batoniSvili Tamari.

1805 wels Tamaris mama iulon batoniSvili colSviliT ruseTSi, kerZod tulaSi gadaasaxles. karga xnis Semdeg maT neba darTes peterburgSi cxovrebisa, saidanac Tamarma moaxerxa Tavis daRweva da TbilisSi dabruneba.

1832 wlis SeTqmulebaSi batoniSvili Tamari ara marto organizatori da informatori iyo, aramed mas instruqciebic ki SeumuSavebia SeqmulTa mTavari StabisaTvis; mis xelT iyo yvela Zalebi da saWiro gankargulebebsac da gegmebs is iZleoda.

SeTqmulebis monawileebs gadawyvetili hqondaT misi dedoflad gamocxadeba, Tumca Tamars azrad hqonda droebiT aeRo xelSi saqarTvelos marTva-gamgeoba, vidre aleqsandre batoniSvili sparseTidan an Tamaris Zma, dimitri peterburgidan Camovidoda.

SeTqmulTa ajanyeba 1831 wlisaTvis hqondaT ganzraxuli - poloneTis ajanyebasTan da mTis brZolebTan dakavSirebiT, magram varSavis dacemam gamoiwvia ajanyebis erTi wliT gadaweva. Tamari diplomatiur-organizaciul muSaobas ganagrZobda.

Tamaris mier damtkicebuli moqmedebis gegmis Tanaxmad (gegmas erqva "pirveli Ramis gankarguleba") 1832 wlis 20 dekembris Ramis 1 saaTze Tbilisis zarebs unda emcnoT qarTveli eris aRdgoma ... arsenali, xazina, samxedro postebi, yvelaferi erTbaSad unda daekavebinaT. ajanyebulTa erT nawils evaleboda TbilisSi RvTismSoblis xatebiT xelSi xalxis gamoyvana. kidev cotac, da Tamars sionSi SeiZleba dedoflis gvirgvini daedga da darialic samudamod Caketiliyo.

1832 wlis 9 dekembers SeTqmulTa aqtiurima wevrma, Tbilisis gubernatoris Zma iese falavandiSvilma Zmis kategoriuli moTxovniT SeTqmuleba gasca da yvelaferi daiRupa.

yvela patimari gaafTrebiT icavda da xels afarebda am ugvirgvino dedofals, magram 1833 wlis 24 Tebervals Tamari daiWires da Soreul simbirskSi gadaasaxles.

1832 wlis SeTqmuleba gaxda stimulis mimcemi Semdgomi epoqis didi erovnuli moZraobisa.

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meore TvalsaCino wevri SeTqmulTa iyo mamida Tamarisa Tekla batoniSvili, saxelovani qali mefe ereklesi, poeti da mwignobari, sibrZniTa da saTnoebiT Semkuli, amasTan sakvirveli mxne da gamWriaxi, samagaliTo deda da ufro SesaniSnavi dedakaci.

Tekla iyo ideuri xelmZRvaneli am SeTqmulebisa TamarTan erTad da arc misi Svilebi da arc dimitri da elizbar erisTavebi umisod arc erT mniSvnelovan nabijs ara sdgamdnen. Tekla, rogorc saqarTvelos amboxebebSi mravaljer gamocdili da mowame rusTa usastikes egzekuciebisa, saqmeSi yvelaze met sifrTxiles iCenda.

ruseTis risxva am moxuc dedasac ar ascda da Tavis SvilebTan erTad isic kalugaSi gadaasaxles. 1837 wels peterburgis qarTvelTa sazogadoebis didi xvewniT nikoloz I-ma moxuc Teklas saqarTveloSi dabrunebis neba misca. aoxrebuli, usaxo saqarTvelos gamo, darCenili 10 weli Teklam mware vaebaSi gaatara.

batoniSvili rifsime, giorgi mefis asuli, meuRle dimitri ColoyaSvilisa. rifsimes ar SeeZlo axlo monawileoba ar mieRo SeTqmulebaSi, sadac misi Zma oqropiri mTavari xelmZRvaneli iyo SeTqmulTa, xolo misi Svili kapitani zaqaria, SeTqmulebis erT-erT emisarad da "kavSirad" iTvleboda ajanyebulebTan.

batoniSvili salome, asuli 1804 wlis mTiuleTis didi amboxebis gmiris, farnaozisa. 1805 wels farnaozi ojaxiTurT voroneJSi gadaasaxles da patara salomem Tamaris msgavsad bavSvobidanve igrZno susxi maSindeli ruseTis "mfarvelobisa". SeTqmulebis wlebSi igi peterburgSi cxovrobda da iqaur qarTvel qalTa Sori yvelaze aqtiuri iyo. mas gverdSi edga misi mama, erekles Ze farnaozi, ruseTis mTavrobasTan warmoebul brZolaTa daucxromeli beladi.

oqropir batoniSvilis da. es qali SeTqmulTa pirvel ujredis wevri yofila jer kidev 1827 wels.

samegrelos dedofali nino, grigol dadianis meuRle, erekle mefis Svilis, giorgi mefis asuli. 1804 wels is samegrelos dedoflad iqna gamocxadebuli. Tavidan igi erekles msgavsad loialurad iyo ganwyobili ruseTis mimarT. 1810 wels Savi zRvis rusuli flotis daxmarebiT afxazeTi da foTi kvlav samegrelos daukavSira da Zveli samegrelos samTavros sazRvrebi TiTqmis sul aRadgina. magram imereTis mefe solomonis saboloo damarcxebis Semdeg, ruseTma samegrelos samTavroc gaauqma. dedofalma ninom uaryofiTi ganaCeni gamoutana Tavisi moRvaweobis pirvel periods. man dainaxa, rom ruseTi mtkiced da TandaTanobiT atarebda saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeebis SeerTebisa da provinciad gardaqmnis politikas da yvelanairad cdilobda Tavisi Secdomis gamosworebas. rusTa mier gangvirgvinebuli, voroneJis monasterSi Zalad moTavsebuli dedofali 1847 wels gardaicvala.

batoniSvili qeTevan, erekles asuli, Teklas da - romelic adreve Caeba rusTa batonobis sawinaaRmdego brZolebSi.

Tekla batoniSvilis rZali ekaterine daviTis asuli baraTaSvili, aleqsandre orbelianis meuRle. is iyo ara marto Rirseuli meuRle da deda, aramed Rrma patrioti qali. mas pativi dasdes da miandes amboxebisaTvis sagangebo droSis damzadeba.

solomon dodaSvilis meuRle. 1833 wels dodaSvili gadaasaxles da misma colma neba iTxova, raTa qmars SvilebiTurT gahyoloda viatkaSi.

melania SanSes asuli erisTavi, dimitri da elizbar erisTavebis da. igi iyo Tbilisis policmeister andria iakobis Ze melnikovis meuRle. melania Tavidanve CarTuli iyo SeTqmulebaSi da misi ojaxi moqmed Stab-binad gadaiqca. swored am qalis gavleniT misi ukraineli qmaric male gaeria qarTul SeTqmulebaSi da meTaurT xelsac uwyobda.

manana orbeliani, maSindeli mowinave sazogadoebis TvalsaCino wevri da qarTvel qalebSi TiTqmis yvelaze warmtaci da saintereso pirovneba. igi Tbilisis SeTqmulTa wevri yofila. es qali maSindel da Semdeg aTeul wlebis SavbneliT mocul saqarTvelos sinamdvileSi, marTlac Suqur varskvlavad mosCans da tyuilad ki ar aumRerebia maSindeli poetebi. manana maSindel qarTvel qalebSi ara marto saucxoo silamaziT gamoirCeoda, aramed WkuiT, simaxviliT da iSviaTi gemovnebiT. iona meunargiam mas samarTlianad uwoda saqarTvelos madam rekamie. im saSineli reaqciis Semdeg, rac mohyva 1832 wlis SeTqmulebas, manana orbeliani iyo damarcxebulTa da devnilTa nugeSi.

sakmaod vrclad am SeTqmulebebisa da maTi monawileebis Sesaxeb SegiZliaT gaecanoT qalbaton Tamar gogolaSvili-papavas istoriul narkvevebSi: "didi saxeebi patara CarCoebSi".

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ixileT agreTve:

leila abaSiZe, elene axvlediani, Tamar gverdwiTeli, lia eliava, salome zurabiSvili, Tamar TumaniSvili, liana isakaZe, qeTi melua, nino maCaiZe, leila mesxi, nino ramiSvili, rusudan ftviaSvili, nazi Samanauri, sofiko Wiaureli, sofo xalvaSi, medea jafariZe

 

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